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Abstract

By now, there is no doubt that regular physical exercise has an overall beneficial effect on each organ of the body. However, the effects of highly competitive sports (HCS) are more complex, as they exert greater demands on the cardiovascular and metabolic systems, among others. Strength, athletic, and aesthetic sport types each has a different exercise intensity and nutritional loading, as well as a different prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases at a later age. HCS athletes experience hypertension and mental stress during competitions and high nutritional loads between them. The post-career effects of this behaviour on the heart, arteries, cellular metabolism, and risk of obesity, are not well known and are not often the focus of research. In this review, we aimed to summarize the post-career effects of HCS. Based on data in the literature, we propose that athletes involved in highly competitive strength sports progressively develop metabolic syndrome and sustained elevated blood pressure.

Open access

Abstract

As there are few data available, we aimed to assess the development of the cardiorespiratory system of young female athletes following a two-year training program (2y-TP) and explore the game position-specific changes.

Methods

Before and after the 2y-TP body compositions of young elite female handball players (age: 14.2 ± 0.5 years, n = 33) were investigated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The morphological changes of the heart were assessed by echocardiography, and cardiorespiratory values were investigated by spiroergometry.

Results

Compared to initial values, after the 2y-TP, significant increases were found in body mass (by 8.8%), skeletal muscle mass (by 7.7%), and body fat (by 11.3%), power (by 7.8%), VO2 (by 10.6%), VCO2 (by 8.3%), oxygen pulse (by 13.8%), ventilation (by 13.4%), tidal volume (by 13.7%), left ventricular mass (by 24.8%), stroke volume (by 21.2%), and stroke volume normalized to the body surface (by 16.4%). Heart rate decreased (by 2.9%), whereas respiratory frequency, load time, relative power, and relative VO2 did not change. During the test, the goalkeepers run for a shorter time than the wing players at the initial time point and after the 2y-TP. Also, the maximum heart rate did not change in goalkeepers, whereas it decreased in wing players after the 2y-TP. Thus, the goalkeepers had a higher initial VO2 value at VO2peak than wing players, and differences, which were maintained after the 2y-TP, as well. In contrast, in goalkeepers, the relative VO2 at the VO2peak was initially lower than in wing players, which remained lower after the 2y-TP, as well.

Conclusions

In adolescent female handball players, the 2y-TP significantly improved skeletal muscle mass, which corresponded to significant improvements of cardiorespiratory function, which were more accentuated in wing players, compared to goalkeepers, likely due to the different loads during trainings and matches.

Open access
Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
E. Lukács
,
B. Magyari
,
L. Tóth
,
Zs. Petrási
,
I. Repa
,
A. Koller
, and
Iván Horváth

There are several experimental models for the in vivo investigation of myocardial infarction (MI) in small (mouse, rat) and large animals (dog, pig, sheep and baboons). The application of large animal models raises ethical concerns, the design of experiments needs longer follow-up times, requiring proper breeding and housing conditions, therefore resulting in higher cost, than in vitro or small animal studies. On the other hand, the relevance of large animal models is very important, since they mostly resemble to human physiological and pathophysiological processes. The first main difference among MI models is the method of induction (open or closed chest, e.g. surgical or catheter based); the second main difference is the presence or absence of reperfusion. The former (i.e. reperfused MI) allows the investigation of reperfusion injury and new catheter based techniques during percutaneous coronary interventions, while the latter (i.e. nonreperfused MI) serves as a traditional coronary occlusion model, to test the effects of new pharmacological agents and biological therapies, as cell therapy. The reperfused and nonreperfused myocardial infarction has different outcomes, regarding left ventricular function, remodelling, subsequent heart failure, aneurysm formation and mortality. Our aim was to review the literature and report our findings regarding experimental MI models, regarding the differences among species, methods, reproducibility and interpretation.

Restricted access
Physiology International
Authors:
M. Michalis
,
K.J. Finn
,
R. Podstawski
,
S. Gabnai
,
Á. Koller
,
A. Cziráki
,
M. Szántó
,
Z. Alföldi
, and
F. Ihász

Abstract

Within recent years the popularity of sportive activities amongst older people, particularly competitive activities within certain age groups has increased. The purpose of this study was to assess the differences in the cardiorespiratory output at anaerobic threshold and at maximal power, output during an incremental exercise, among senior and young athletes. Ten elderly male subjects [mean (SD) age: 68.45 ± 9.32 years] and eight young male subjects [mean (SD) age: 25.87 ± 5.87 years] performed an incremental exercise test on a treadmill ergometer. No significant differences in body size were evident; however, the differences between the groups for peak power (451.62 ± 49 vs. 172.4 ± 32.2 W), aerobic capacity (57.97 ± 7.5 vs. 40.36 ± 8.6 mL kg−1 min−1), maximal heart rate (190.87 ± 9.2 vs. 158.5 ± 9.1 beats min−1), peak blood lactate (11 ± 1.7 vs. 7.3 ± 1.4 mmol L−1), and % VO2max at ventilatory thresholds (93.18 ± 4.3 vs. 79.29 ± 9.9%) were significantly lower in the senior athletes. The power output at anaerobic threshold was also higher (392 ± 48 vs. 151 ± 23 W) in the young athletes, explaining the significant difference in terms of performance between these groups. We have observed an evident deterioration in some of the cardiovascular parameters; however, the submaximal exercise economy seems to be preserved with aging. Exercise economy (i.e. metabolic cost of sustained submaximal exercise) was not different considerably with age in endurance-trained adults.

Open access

It has been reported that some of the food additives may cause sensitization, inflammation of tissues, and potentially risk factors in the development of several chronic diseases. Thus, we hypothesized that expressions of common inflammatory molecules – known to be involved in the development of various inflammatory conditions and cancers – are affected by these food additives. We investigated the effects of commonly used food preservatives and artificial food colorants based on the expressions of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 (JNK1) from the tissues of liver. RNA was isolated based on Trizol protocol and the activation levels were compared between the treated and the control groups. Tartrazine alone could elicit effects on the expressions of NFκB (p = 0.013) and MAPK8 (p = 0.022). Azorubine also resulted in apoptosis according to MAPK8 expression (p = 0.009). Preservatives were anti-apoptotic in high dose. Sodium benzoate (from low to high doses) dose-dependently silenced MAPK8 expression (p = 0.004 to p = 0.002). Addition of the two preservatives together elicited significantly greater expression of MAPK8 at half-fold dose (p = 0.002) and at fivefold dose (p = 0.008). This study suggests that some of the food preservatives and colorants can contribute to the activation of inflammatory pathways.

Restricted access