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Basal resistance (BR, a local resistance against pathogens induced by general elicitors) is a multi-faceted defence mechanism appearing in many shapes and with many given names, such as induced (acquired) resistance (protection, defence), as well as a part of innate immunity. Here, we give a historical overview of concepts, present results and an outlook associated with bacteriological studies in the Plant Protection Institute (PPI). The topics on BR briefly covered are its elicitors, light and temperature dependence, changes in plant physiology, transcription and protein expression during it and its effect on bacteria. We emphasize the importance and relevance of its quick form, early BR, which might be a plant defence mechanism in nature against all kinds of pathogenic and saprophytic bacteria.
The development of local early basal resistance (EBR), is a form of non-specific general defence response of plants to bacteria, greatly depending on temperature. This symptomless defence mechanism is easily detected by its inhibitory action on the hypersensitive response (HR) caused by a subsequent incompatible pathogenic bacterium. Both EBR and HR were investigated at different temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 5 °C. At normal temperatures (30-20 °C) both heat-killed Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 61 (polyvirulent to many plants) and Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola S21 (pathogenic to bean) induced EBR in tobacco leaves within a few hours, but below 10 °C it was greatly delayed and at 5 °C usually no EBR response could be detected within 2-3 days. The time required for development of EBR did not depend on the bacterial pathovars or strains. However, the induction time of HR was not as sensitive to low temperatures as that of EBR, instead, it depended on the bacterial pathovars used.
Pseudomonas viridiflava is an opportunistic, post-harvest pathogenic bacterium that causes soft rot of fruits and vegetables. In vivo expression technology was used to identify genes that participate in the pathogenicity of P. viridiflava. Genetic loci that are induced in planta were identified. Ten such loci were partially sequenced and annotated. Here we describe five of them, which influence the pathogen's stress tolerance in planta. Three of the identified ORFs that show sequence identity to known genes encode membrane proteins, the remaining two encode enzymes in catabolic pathways.
The main objective of the DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project is to significantly extend the potential, how demands on spatial soil related information could be satisfied in Hungary. Although a great amount of soil information is available due to former mappings and surveys, there are more and more frequently emerging discrepancies between the available and the expected data. The gaps are planned to be filled with optimized digital soil mapping (DSM) products heavily based on legacy soil data, which still represent a valuable treasure of soil information at the present time. The paper presents three approaches for the application of Hungarian legacy soil data in object oriented digital soil mapping.
Six varieties of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) and two commercially available millets were investigated in the present study. In order to explore the nutritional potential, major nutrient composition, mineral composition, antioxidant capacity, total phenols content (related to the antioxidant capacity) and dietary fibre content were determined. The effects of decortication on these components were examined. In addition, protein profile of the varieties and amylose/amylopectin ratio of the starch were examined. The range of the values measured for major nutrient composition corresponds with data of other millet species published in earlier studies. Remarkable differences were found among the protein contents of the varieties (11.58–14.80%). Although the concentration of minerals was low in the varieties examined, in comparison with other cereals wholegrain millet seems to be nutritionally valuable because of their high dietary fibre content. Decortication had no effect on the protein and fat content of millets, however, it significantly decreased the content of crude fibre, dietary fibre, minerals, total phenols content and antioxidant capacity. Consequently the applicability of millets as functional food decreases. Decortication had no effect on the amylose/amylopectin ratio of millet. No varietal differences were found in terms of protein characteristics.
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy is a multifactorially determined process of the brain parenchyma. Among other factors, vasogenic causes have been shown to play a role in its development. The aim of the present work was to assess whether cerebral tissue oxygen saturation is influenced by administration of acetazolamide in septic patients compared to controls.
Compared to the known method of conjugation the frequency of transposon mutagenesis following conjugation was enhanced 11-fold by two hours of pre-incubation of recipient Pseudomonas viridiflava 1 on conjugation media. The increased frequency was ƒ = 1.3 × 10 −4 . In other species of Pseudomonas, Pectobacteira and Xanthomonas high rates of transposon mutants were similarly obtained; however, in these strains the increased frequency was less than 5-fold.
Objective: To investigate the associations of blood glucose (BG) parameters and postoperative complications following paediatric cardiac surgery in the presence and absence of insulin treatment.
Methods: Prospectively collected perioperative data on 810 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease were retrospectively analysed. A combined outcome of death and multiple organ dysfunction (any two of the followings: infectious, cardiac, pulmonary, renal or neurological complications) was considered as the endpoint.
Results: In total, 110 patients developed the combined endpoint and 32 of these patients died during the perioperative period. Patients treated with insulin were younger, smaller and underwent more complex procedures. They had higher peak BG levels and higher daily BG fluctuation, however, BG parameters were not associated with adverse outcome. In patients without insulin treatment, peak BG values higher than 250 mg/dl (OR, 7.65; 95% CI, 1.06–55.17; p=0.043) and BG fluctuation exceeding the level of 150 mg/dl (10.72; 1.74–65.90 p=0.010) on the first postoperative day were independently associated with the combined endpoint.
Conclusions: Peak BG level and BG fluctuation on the first postoperative day were associated with the combined endpoint of complications and death but these results were only confined to patients without insulin treatment.