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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: M. Jolánkai, Á. Tarnawa, K. Kassai, H. Nyárai, and Zs. Szentpétery

Agriculture is highly affected by climate change. Climate change impacts may influence almost all fields of agricultural activities; production efficiency, quantitative and qualitative deterioration of crop yields produced for alimentary purposes, and determine post-harvest manifestation of agricultural products inducing hazard in the field of food safety, transport, storage and distribution. Soil-climatic conditions, amount and distribution of precipitation, anomalies and extremities of temperature as well as various manifestation of air movement from stand still to storms are some of the main factors that may influence agriculture. Pollution has been considered solely as the presence of unfavourable alien matter in the environment, but in reality pollution is far more than that. Agri-environmental pollution is largely independent of mankind, since many pollution or degradation processes may begin with no direct relationship to human activities. Soil degradation, or irreversible damage to natural ecosystems by climatic factors (drought, flood, water logging, salinity) are the most frequent consequences. Biological pollution, like weed infestation, epidemics and gradations, pollen allergy, the poisonous effect of mycotoxins on farm animals and humans, new pests and diseases, the emission of greenhouse gases, and biological factors which cause quality deterioration represent an increasing pressure on agri-environment. This paper is intended to give an overview of some research activities and their results in relation with climatic aspects of agri-environmental pollution in Hungary.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Zs. Szentpétery, Cs. Kleinheincz, A. Tarnawa, and M. Jolánkai

Since the change of the Hungarian agriculture the increased weed infection causes great losses in wheat. It is necessary to apply herbicides on the weedy field as harvest approaches to make the harvest easier and avoid losses. In our small plot trials at Nagygombos, between 1996 and 2002 the applicability of fluroxypyr, bromoxynil, dicamba, tribenuron-methyl and MCPA in late weed control was examined in four wheat varieties. We found that the late application against weeds did not have a total eliminating effect, however reduced the number of weeds, restricted their development and the reproductive organs below and above ground dried. Weed seed infection was slowed down and the dried stems made harvesting easier. In the last three years, we found that fluroxypyr (Starane) and tribenuron-methyl (Granstar) impeded a little the maturing and water extraction in the milk maturation stage of wheat, but this difference was not seen in full maturation. Examinations showed that after late weed control, all of above-mentioned chemicals except bromoxynil (Pardner) was discharged at the time of the harvest and were under the maximum residue tolerance limit. So the experimentally involved herbicides can be used for late weed control - in accordance with international experiences.

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Water supply of crop plants is the most essential physiological condition influencing quality and quantity performance of grain yield. In a 12-year experimental series of winter wheat agronomic trials run at the Nagygombos experimental site (Hungary) the effect of water availability has been studied. The location represents the typical average lowland conditions of the country, the annual precipitation of the experimental site belonging to the 550–600 mm belt of the Northern edges of the Great Hungarian Plain, while the average depth of groundwater varies between 2 to 3 metres. Crop years with various precipitation patterns have had different impacts on crop yield quality and quantity. Yield figures were in positive correlation with annual precipitation in general. Water availability had diverse influence on quality manifestation. Good water supply has often resulted in poorer grain quality, especially wet gluten and Hagberg values have been affected by that. Drought reduced the amount of yield in general, but contributed to a better quality manifestation in some of the crop years.

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Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield samples taken from a consecutive series of crop years representing drought, normal and moist conditions at the Nagygombos experimental site of the Szent István University have been evaluated. The impact of N topdressing and crop year conditions on the performance of protein and wet gluten content were studied.The results suggest that ascending levels of N topdressing, and increased number of applications had a beneficial effect on the protein content, as well as on wet gluten values. Crop year had a significant effect on quality manifestation. The drier the crop year, the better the recorded quality performance. The magnitude of changes was bigger in case of gluten than in that of protein values. There were minor differences between the two varieties examined, especially in their response patterns to nitrogen supply. Dough formation depends mainly on the gliadin/ glutenin ratio, but there is less information on the agronomic and climatic impacts that may cause alterations in that.

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: M. Jolánkai, Á. Tarnawa, H. F. Nyárai, Z. Szentpétery, and M. K. Kassai

Long-term trials are established in order to explore and observe plant and soil interrelationships in situ. Long-term trials can be described as live instruments providing ceteris paribus conditions in temporal sequences.

This review provides an introduction to major long-term trials in Hungary and in other parts of the world. It gives a brief summary of the origins of plant nutritional research, beginning with some data from Homer and the willow tree experiment of van Helmont, as well as the discovery of physiological processes by von Liebig, Lawes and Boussingault. The most profound long-term trials, like the Orto Botanico in Padova, the Linné Garden in Uppsala and the Broadbalk in Rothamsted are presented in the paper.

The agronomic, educational and scientific benefits of the major Hungarian long-term trials are also discussed, from Westsik (1929) to Martonvásár and the National Plant Nutrition Trials (OMTK) set up in 1963. There is a list of experimental sites giving information on the most important recent long-term trial locations and their activities.

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Soybean is one of the most important leguminous crops that contributes to human alimentation and animal feed. Soybean grain with its high protein and valuable lipid content is an essential component for the food and feed industries worldwide. Apart from the genetically determined quality characteristics of a certain variety, management practices may have an influence on the manifestation of quality parameters. At the Department of Agronomy, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, agronomic impacts on grain yield, protein and lipid content of soybean crop has been studied in a replicated field trial. Nitrogen (N) application and various means of weed control were studied, and grain yields were evaluated in accordance with the treatments. The results obtained suggest, that N topdressing has positive but no significant effect on grain yield, however, the means of weed control resulted in an almost twofold yield improvement compared to the control. The treatments had diverse effects regarding both protein and lipid contents of the crop yield, however, significant protein and lipid yield improvement of the crop could be observed.

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