A tanulmány célja, hogy tájrégészeti szemléletben összefoglalja a tiszazugi és körösszögi halmok (kurgánok) teljességre törekvő kataszterezésének és állapotfelmérésének legfőbb eredményeit. Emellett kitér a kutatástörténeti előzményekre, és bemutatja az egyéb vizsgálati lehetőségeket is (névtan, folklór, tájtörténet, tájökológia).
The aim of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive report on the cadastral works of mounds in the central part of Tiszántúl (the region east of the Tisza River), taking the burial mounds of the Late Copper Age Yamnaya entity as a starting point. Theoretical and field research began around the beginning of the 19th century, and in the second half of the 20th century systematic site registration took place, mainly due to the so-called ‘Archaeological Sites of Hungary’ project. Later on national surveys and local initiatives were carried out, but they are of very different quality. In addition to the main characteristics and results of the creation of these cadastres, we also outline further scientific studies on mounds.
Authors:Ádám Bede, Roderick B. Salisbury, András István Csathó, Péter Czukor, Dávid Gergely Páll, Gábor Szilágyi, and Pál Sümegi
The Ecse-halom is a burial mound (kurgan) in the Hortobágy region of Hungary. Built in the Late Copper Age/Early Bronze Age by nomadic people from the east, it now stands on the border between two modern settlements. A road of medieval origin runs along this border and cuts deeply into the body of the mound. The southern half of the mound was plowed and used as a rice field, and later a military observation tower was built on top of it. Despite this disturbance, the surface of the mound is in decent condition and provides a home for regionally significant, species-rich loess steppe vegetation. The mound comprises two construction layers as indicated by magnetic susceptibility and thin-section micro-morphological analysis. Examination of organic compounds and carbonate content at various levels showed different values, which suggest a variety of natural and anthropogenic stratigraphic layers. Mid-sized siltstone fraction is dominant in the section. The layers originate from the immediate vicinity of the mound, but have different characteristics than present-day soils. These mounds contain a valuable record of cultural and environmental conditions occurring at the time of their construction, and also serve as a refuge for ancient loess vegetation; therefore their conservation is highly recommended.