Are governments able to continuously boost economic growth by spending for decades? Can the state be a more efficient user of income by improving the structure of public spending? The paper analyses the correlation between various types of public expenditures and GDP growth in different countries of the EU. The database was composed from the Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG) classification of public spending, which contains data of 25 EU economies in the period 1996–2017. Three econometric models were applied in accordance with the empirical practice found in the literature: first-differences general method of moment (GMM), fixed effects panel and ordinary least squares (OLS) models. The expenditures on social protection proved to have a negative, statistically significant and robust impact on GDP growth. The results are similar for general public spending, and while spending on public order also has a significant and robust coefficient, its sign is ambiguous. The novelty of the article relate to the findings on lagged education and health spending, which have a positive impact on GDP growth.
Bevezetés: A gyógyszerelés biztonságát javító stratégiák közül a gyógyszeres terápia egyeztetése bizonyítottan eredményes, az eltérő ellátórendszerekbe és különböző profilú osztályok gyakorlatába átültethető módszer. Célkitűzés: A gyógyszeres terápia egyeztetési folyamatának alaposabb megismerése, a gyakorlathoz kapcsolódó korlátok és hajtóerők feltérképezése. Módszer: A szerzők irodalomkutatást végeztek. 19 adatbázisban kerestek 7 keresőmotor segítségével. Két független szakértő értékelése után a releváns közleményeket előre meghatározott szempontrendszer alapján dolgozták fel. Eredmények: 230 absztraktot értékeltek. A gyakorlat bevezetésével kapcsolatban talált korlátokat és támogató erőket rendszerezték. Gyakran említett akadályként találták a kommunikációs kérdéseket, a vezetés elhivatottságának hiányát, az előre nem látható forrásigényt és a kompetenciák szabályozatlanságát. A bevezetést támogató ajánlások főként a folyamatok újratervezését, a költséghatékonysági adatok bemutatását, kapcsolódó oktatások szervezését javasolják. Következtetések: A gyógyszerelési folyamat biztonságának javítása érdekében a szerzők hazai kórházakban is javasolják a gyakorlat bevezetési lehetőségeinek vizsgálatát az azonosított korlátok és sikertényezők alapján, a hazai intézményekben jelenleg is zajló terepgyakorlatokra alapozva. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(35), 1395–1405.
Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni is a common ciliate in Hungary, infecting the hindgut of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a cyprinid fish of Chinese origin. Although data have already been presented on its occasional pathogenic effect on the endothelium of the host, generally it is a harmless inhabitant of the gut. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA and ITS fragments of this protozoan proved that it is in the closest phylogenetic relationship with endocommensalist and symbiont ciliates of mammals feeding on large volumes of green forage, in a similar way as Balantidium spp. known from algae-eating marine fishes.
One of the important issues of banking today is the role bank branches and online banking solutions play in serving consumers. With the help of a representative Survey of 1,000 adults in Hungary conducted in 2022, we examine how well online and mobile banking solutions can provide a suitable alternative to bank branches. Based on our results, online banking solutions cannot fully replace personal banking in Hungary due to the customers' attitudes, as we can see that their use does not significantly affect the frequency of visits to the bank branch, and their usage rate does not increase with the distance from the bank branch. We also point out that for the Hungarian population the trend of bank branch closures may entail the risk of being left out of the formal financial system mostly for the older, digitally less receptive social strata living in small settlements and in a relatively worse financial situation.
Stress sensitivity of three related phytopathogenic Fusarium species (Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium verticillioides) to different oxidative, osmotic, cell wall, membrane, fungicide stressors and an antifungal protein (PAF) were studied in vitro. The most prominent and significant differences were found in oxidative stress tolerance: all the three F. graminearum strains showed much higher sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and, to a lesser extent, to menadione than the other two species. High sensitivity of F. verticillioides strains was also detectable to an azole drug, Ketoconazole. Surprisingly, no or limited differences were observed in response to other oxidative, osmotic and cell wall stressors. These results indicate that fungal oxidative stress response and especially the response to hydrogen peroxide (this compound is involved in a wide range of plant-fungus interactions) might be modified on niche-specific manner in these phylogenetically related Fusarium species depending on their pathogenic strategy. Supporting the increased hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of F. graminearum, genome-wide analysis of stress signal transduction pathways revealed the absence one CatC-type catalase gene in F. graminearum in comparison to the other two species.
Circoviruses of pigs and birds are established pathogens, however, the exact role of other, recently described circoviruses and circovirus-like viruses remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was the detection of circoviruses in neglected host species, including honey bees, exotic reptiles and free-living amoebae by widely used broad-spectrum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays specific for the replication initiation protein coding gene of these viruses. The majority of sequences obtained from honey bees were highly similar to canine and porcine circoviruses, or, were distantly related to dragonfly cycloviruses. Other rep sequences detected in some honey bees, reptiles and amoebae showed similarities to various rep sequences deposited in the GenBank. Back-to-back PCR primers designed for the amplification of whole viral genomes failed to work that suggested the existence of integrated rep-like elements in many samples. Rolling circle amplification and exonuclease treatment confirmed the absence of small circular DNA genomes in the specimens analysed. In case of honey bees Varroa mite DNA contamination might be a source of the identified endogenous rep-like elements. The reptile and amoebae rep-like sequences were nearly identical with each other and with sequences detected in chimpanzee feces raising the possibility that detection of novel or unusual rep-like elements in some host species might originate from the microbial community of the host. Our results indicate that attention is needed when broad-spectrum rep gene specific polymerase chain reaction is chosen for laboratory diagnosis of circovirus infections.
A 2009. évi orvosi Nobel-díjat a telomerák és a telomeráz enzim felfedezéséért és az ezekkel kapcsolatos úttörő kutatásokért három, Amerikában dolgozó tudós kapta megosztva. Nem régóta az is ismert, hogy bizonyos életmód- és táplálkozásbeli változások (Ornish-féle életmódváltozás), magatartásbeli, pszichológiai tényezők, valamint a telomerarövidülés között bizonyított kapcsolat létezik. Az összefoglalóban ezen összefüggések molekuláris, sejtbiológiai, életmódbeli és magatartási vonatkozásait, valamint ezek lehetséges összefüggéseit mutatják be.
Since its emergence near the German–Dutch border in 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has been identified in many European countries. In this study, we determined the complete coding sequence of seven Hungarian SBV genomes to expand our knowledge about the genetic diversity of circulating field strains. The samples originated from the first case, an aborted cattle fetus without malformation collected in 2012, and from the blood samples of six adult cattle in 2014. The Hungarian SBV sequences shared ≥99.3% nucleotide (nt) and ≥97.8% amino acid (aa) identity with each other, and ≥98.9 nt and ≥96.7% aa identity with reference strains. Although phylogenetic analyses showed low resolution in general, the M sequences of cattle and sheep origin SBV strains seemed to cluster on different branches. Both common and unique mutation sites were observed in different groups of sequences that might help understanding the evolution of emerging SBV strains.
Minimally invasive adrenalectomy – Operative and perioperative results of transperitoneal and retroperitoneal adrenalectomies performed at the University of Szeged Department of Surgery during 23 years
Our goal was to evaluate operative and perioperative data of retroperitoneal (RP) and transperitoneal (TP) adrenalectomies performed at the University of Szeged Department of Surgery.
Patients and method
During a retrospective cohort study including 174 adrenalectomies (28 RP; 146 TP) performed between 1998 and 2021, the following parameters were evaluated: rate of previous abdominal surgeries, conversion rate, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, tumor size, histology, hospital stay, early and late complications.
With significantly higher rate of previous abdominal surgeries [TP vs RP: 68 (46.57%) vs 4 (14%) P = 0.0021], there was no markable difference in conversion rate [TP vs RP: 7 (4.79%) vs 5 (18%), P = 0.312]. Significantly larger tumours were removed with TP (TP vs RP: 58.05 vs 34.8 mm, P = 0.016), with no markable difference in intraoperative blood loss (TP vs RP: 67.85 vs 50.2 ml, P = 0.157). Operative time was significantly shorter in TP (TP vs RP: 86.3 vs 134.5 min; P = 0.024). The most frequent histology was adenoma (TP vs RP: n = 95; 65.06% vs 64.3%). Pheochromocytoma occurred in 11 (7.53%) and 5 (17.8%) cases in TP and RP, respectively. We found no significant difference in hospital stay (TP vs RP: 5.125 vs 4.61 day; P = 0.413). Five- and 2 cases of early complications were seen in TP (splenic injury, postoperative fever, severe intraoperative bleeding, severe hypokalemia, surgical site infection) and RP (2 severe intraoperative bleeding), respectively. One lethal case of ventricular fibrillation and one delayed complication (postoperative abdominal wall hernia) were observed in TP.
Both TP and RP are safe and simply reproducible minimally invasive techniques. According to our observation, RP adrenalectomy seems to be reserved for smaller lesions, while TP proves to be successful in removing enlarged and also malignant lesions with significantly shorter operative time.
Over the past decades, we have witnessed an immense expansion in the arsenal and performance of machine learning (ML) algorithms. One of the most important fields that could benefit from these advancements is biomedical science. To streamline the training and evaluation of binary classifiers, we constructed a universal and flexible ML framework that uses tabular biomedical data as input.
Methods and results
Our framework requires the input data to be provided as a comma-separated values file, in which rows correspond to subjects and columns represent different features. After reading the content of this file, the framework enables the users to perform outlier detection, handle missing values, rescale features, and tackle class imbalance. Then, hyperparameter tuning, feature selection, and internal validation are performed using nested cross-validation. If an additional dataset is available, the framework also provides the option for external validation. Users may also compute SHapley Additive exPlanations values to interpret the individual predictions of the model and identify the most important features. Our ML framework was implemented in Python (version 3.9), and its source code is freely available via GitHub. In the second part of this paper, we also demonstrate the usage of the framework through a case study from the field of cardiovascular imaging.
The proposed ML framework enables the efficient training and evaluation of binary classifiers on tabular biomedical data. We hope our framework will serve as a useful resource for both learning and research purposes and will promote further innovation.