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A szerző bemutatja a Lisszaboni Program kiindulópontjait, majd elemzi a megvalósítás késlekedésének okait. „Független értékelésében”kitér a döntéshozatal és bürokrácia európai problémáira (az USA-val összehasonlítva), valamint vázlatosan bemutatja a program három fő területén, azaz a K+F és innováció, a belső piaci program és a munkaerőpiac vonatkozásában tett előrehaladást. A Programról készült értékelő jelentések puhaságának fő okaként rámutat, hogy egyfajta kooperatív játék zajlik a bírálók és bíráltak között: olyan kritikát kell adni, amely igaz, de „externáliákra”hivatkozva könnyen visszautasítható. A kilátások elemzése során a cikk kiemelt problémaként mutat rá arra, hogy a Program figyelmen kívül hagyja az amerikai és az EU-beli gazdaság- és társadalomszerveződés nagyban eltérő jellemzőit, és azzal számol, mintha az Unióban is hasonlóan erős politikai és társadalmi támogatás állna a gazdasági teljesítőképesség és általában a nemzetközi pozíciók javítására irányuló törekvések mögött, mint az Egyesült Államokban.

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Buses are characteristic for Hungarian interurban traffic. This paper has the key objectives of determining the economically feasible point of reselling the buses. The paper is based on Hungarian data. The paper highlights the importance of operation of public transport vehicles and the optimum solution for minimizing their costs. Hungarian operators try to achieve this goal, although this is not easy due to their limited resources. Because of the present national economic situation in Hungary buses are operated much longer than it would be economically beneficial. Unfortunately the acquisition of newer buses is a slow process. All these problems significantly increase the losses of our interurban public transport companies.

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Erwin Schrödinger’s Cat model is a thought experiment from quantum mechanics to visualise “neither dead, nor alive” types of transitional situations. This essay draws certain parallels between this Cat and the Brexit process. A process that has been initiated but, in a strictly legal sense, not yet unleashed. It might be officially launched one day by the UK government, but without any certainty as to whether it would be completed at all. There seems to be no trade policy model, which would be optimal for both sides: keeping the UK within the Single European market for goods and capital, while introducing constraints on the free flow of labour is not a real option. A possible strategy for both parties may be procrastination: declaring that Brexit is underway, but maintaining the pre-2016 conditions of economic co-operation and integration, prolonging the current Cat-like situation.

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People, although they are guided by rules, participate in traffic on the basis of independent decisions. In this article on road network sections with different design speed and construction parameters measured speeds of road vehicles have been analyzed with mathematical statistical methods. The hypothesis was the driving speed selected by the driver depends greatly on the conditions of the road network element also. On 5 different sites, over 400 measurements have been carried out on second category main roads with 2×1 and 2×2 lanes; out of these 406 measurements have been evaluated.

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Through combusting fuels the operation of vehicles causes damage to the environment. Increasing rate of car ownership and growing traffic results in an increased environmental impact and the caused effects can be experienced not just locally but globally as well. The only solution that decreases the environmental impact without restricting mobility is the application of new environmentally friendly energy sources like gaseous bio fuels: bio- and pyrolysis gases, which can be used and stored safely and which can be produced and applied in an environment friendly way. While trying to adapt to the changes caused by pollution the society and the people, who participate in transport, need to modify their approach. The development of an environment conscious lifestyle in order to preserve the living-space of future generations is a common interest for all the population of the world. The aim of this paper is to present an estimation of the environmental impact deriving from the consumption of renewable gaseous fuels in the case of IC engines.

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Mobility is important factor of welfare. Therefore, the European Community must be able to provide its citizens and the commercial sector with a safe, efficient and reliable transport system. This system must be accessible to everyone under the same conditions, and must contribute towards country-ward employment and growth with the secure of nature. The transportation sector, led by the automobile, has been cited constantly as a major contributor through human intervention to climate change. In future, greenhouse gas emission and global warming will be key issues for society. Short of banning car use, the challenge remains one of understanding better what mix of actions might contribute in non-marginal ways to reducing the growth of greenhouse gas emissions and the absolute amount of CO2 produced by automobiles. This paper evaluates road transport efficiency, sustainability and equity, focusing on social surplus gains in addition to cost effectiveness; but in particular the ability to reduce CO2. Since one of the biggest challenges the community faces is to effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this presupposes a transport-efficient society.

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The post-2008 crisis seems to have come to an end in most countries, but its long-term impacts are increasingly felt by most players of the world economy. Certain economic problems were aggravated, others created by the crisis that seems to have generated significant structural and behavioral changes in most national economies and their international relations. These lasting changes are listed, and new directions for research suggested in the present paper, using an approach combining the human, the financial and the growth dimensions.

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors: Ádám Török and Péter Mihályi
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