Authors:Károly Tempfli, Gergely Farkas, Zsolt Simon, and Ágnes Bali Papp
The aim of this study was to detect different alleles of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene and to examine their effects on the litter size of the indigenous Hungarian pig, the Mangalica. G1789A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was investigated as a candidate for litter size. Samples from 80 purebred Mangalica sows and data of their 335 litters were provided by Olmos & Tóth Ltd. Hair follicles were used to isolate the required DNA. Allelic discrimination was performed by means of the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method using the AluI restriction enzyme and agarose gel electrophoresis. In the population examined, the A allele was found to be preferable in the Mangalica breed group. The most advantageous AA genotype was the least prevalent (8.75%), while the frequencies of AB and BB were 40% and 51.25%, respectively. Remarkably, the average number of piglets born alive per litter was 1.11 ± 0.39 higher in sows with AA as compared to those with BB genotype. By raising the frequency of the AA genotype, the litter size is likely to increase. However, the effect of PRLR genotypes can differ among pig breeds and even lines. Further studies may be required to observe and estimate possible pleiotropic effects of this polymorphism on other traits.
Authors:Klaudia Szalai, Károly Tempfli, Erika Lencsés-Varga, and Ágnes Bali Papp
Traditional selection has led to remarkable differences in allele frequencies among various chicken breeds. Indigenous and broiler-type chicken populations were genotyped for polymorphisms in thyroid hormone responsive Spot14α, prolactin (PRL), IGF-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), and somatostatin (SST) genes in order to determine potential utilisation type-associated allele frequencies. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were detected between Hungarian Yellow and broiler populations for Spot14α, PRL, and IGFBP2 allele frequencies, whereas the same SST allele (A) was fixed in both groups. In this study, the most significant associations (P < 0.05) were found between the IGFBP2 genotypes and the measured traits (body weight, carcass weight, breast muscle weight with or without skin, breast muscle weight as a percentage of carcass weight) in the broiler population. The results can be applied for the evaluation of polymorphism effects in the analysed populations; however, contradictory allele effects in different breeds and hybrids indicate the need for cautious marker utilisation in selection programmes.
Authors:Erika Varga, J. C. Gardón, and Ágnes Bali Papp
Freezing technologies are very important to preserve gametes and embryos of animals with a good pedigree or those having high genetic value. The aim of this work was to compare immature and in vitromatured porcine oocytes regarding their morphology and ability to be fertilised after vitrification by the open pulled straw (OPS) method. In four experiments 830 oocytes were examined. To investigate the effect of cumulus cells on oocyte survival after OPS vitrification, both denuded and cumulus-enclosed oocytes were vitrified at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, then after vitrification they were matured in vitro. Besides, in vitromatured oocytes surrounded with a cumulus and those without a cumulus were also vitrified. The survival of oocytes was evaluated by their morphology. After in vitrofertilisation the rates of oocytes penetrated by spermatozoa were compared. Our results suggest that the vitrification/warming procedure is the most effective in cumulus-enclosed oocytes (22.35 ± 1.75%). There was no difference between the order of maturation and vitrification in cumulus-enclosed oocytes, which suggests the importance of cumulus cells in protecting the viability of oocytes during cryopreservation.
Authors:Ágnes Bali Papp, T. Somfai, Mabel Tartaglione, Erika Varga, and J. C. Gardon
The present study examined the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on in vitro maturation (IVM), in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and subsequent embryonic development of porcine oocytes. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured with or without 1.0 ng/ml NGF for 40 h. After IVF, they were cultured in vitro for 6 days. After 10 and 20 h of IVM, there was no difference in nuclear status between the NGF-treated and control oocytes. Significant differences were detected in nuclear progression of oocytes matured in the presence or absence of NGF at 30 h of culture. A higher proportion of NGF-treated oocytes were at M-II stage compared to the control. Nevertheless, at the end of the 40-h IVM period, there was no difference in the proportion of M-II stage oocytes between the NGF-treated and control groups. NGF in IVM medium did not influence the developmental competence of putative embryos. Most embryos remained at the 2- to 4-cell stage; however, a significant amount of embryos reached the morula stage both in the NGF and the control groups. These results suggest that NGF during IVM accelerates nuclear progression of porcine oocytes by enhancing the post-diakinetic events of meiosis.
Authors:András Gáspárdy, Viktoria Holly, Petra Zenke, Ákos Maróti-Agóts, László Sáfár, Ágnes Bali Papp, and Endre Kovács
The authors studied the present status of Hungarian indigenous sheep breeds based on the genetic background of scrapie resistance. The aim of this investigation was to estimate the relative frequency of prion haplotypes, genotypes and risk categories, as well as to reveal the efficiency of the scrapie eradication programme achieved over the last decade. A novel approach in the characterisation of prion by using its genic variation was also implemented. The authors established that the proportion of deleterious sites (%) can be a useful indicator of the eradication programme. Based on a large sample size, it was confirmed that the scrapie resistance of the Cikta breed is low, and the classification of this breed according to risk category has not improved. However, the frequent genotype ARQ and risk category 3 can also be considered characteristic of the breed. The careful use of these genotypes is permitted and will contribute to the maintenance of breed diversity. The response of prion genic variation to selection for scrapie resistance in the other breeds (Tsigai, Milking Tsigai, White Racka, Black Racka and Gyimes Racka) was definitely successful.
Authors:Erika Varga, Erzsébet Gajdócsi, Brigitta Petz Makkosné, Ildikó Salamon, and Ágnes Bali Papp
The breeding of Mangalica, a native pig breed in Hungary, had been started in 1833, but this pig breed almost became extinct in Hungary in the past decades. In 1991, the number of sows was only 200. Although in these days the existing Mangalica population consists of more than 6000 animals representing different colour variations, the preservation of this traditional pig breed is still very important. Vitrification is a potential tool for the preservation of gametes and embryos of these animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitrification on the developmental competence of Mangalica (M) and Large White (LW) oocytes following fertilisation. The oocytes were vitrified by the Open Pulled Straw (OPS) method using different concentrations of ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulphoxide as cryoprotectants. After rehydration the oocytes underwent
fertilisation; the resultant zygotes were then cultured
for four days to assess embryonic development. In the first experiment,
maturation of M and LW oocytes was compared. No significant difference was observed in the nuclear maturation rate of LW and M oocytes. In the second experiment, the sensitivity of oocytes to vitrification was examined by evaluating oocyte morphology after thawing. A higher percentage of LW oocytes showed normal morphology compared to M oocytes, indicating that Mangalica oocytes are more sensitive to cryoprotectants than Large White oocytes. After warming and
fertilisation, more than 50% of the oocytes started embryonic development and by the end of the incubation period morula stage embryos had developed in both groups. The results show that the OPS vitrification technique is well suited to preserve Mangalica oocytes and from these oocytes morula embryos can be produced.
Authors:Ilona Szentmihályi, János Imre Barabás, Ágnes Bali, Gábor Kapus, Csilla Tamás, Balázs Sax, Endre Németh, Miklós Pólos, László Daróczi, Andrea Kőszegi, Chun Cao, Kálmán Benke, Péter Barnabás Kovács, Levente Fazekas, Zoltán Szabolcs, Béla Merkely, and István Hartyánszky
A szívtranszplantáció kiemelt projekt lett a Semmelweis Egyetemen belül. Ennek
megfelelően a szívátültetés és a mechanikus keringéstámogatás finanszírozása is
rendkívüli jelentőséget kapott. A szerzők a transzplantációs és műszíves betegek
költségeinek összehasonlításáról végzett költséghatékonysági számítási modell
felépítéséről számolnak be. A modell megalkotásánál direkt allokációs
költségszámítást, döntésifa-modellt, inkrementális költséghatékonysági rátát és
költséghatékonysági térképmódszert használtak. Módszerükkel össze tudják
hasonlítani a műszívbeültetésen átesett és a szívtranszplantációs betegcsoportok
kezdeti, perioperatív és utókezelési költségeit. Modelljük alkalmas lehet hosszú
távú utánkövetés és kellő elemszámú beteg bevonásával költséghatékonysági
elemzések elkészítésére, gazdasági döntéstámogató következtetések