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  • Author or Editor: Ágnes M. Móricz x
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Overpressured layer chromatography (OPLC), ensuring pumpforced constant mobile phase flow and the possibility of overrun, offers the expanded exploitation of fine-particle adsorbent layers for a longer development distance. Using an infusion—transfusion OPLC method with a 26-cm long development, the separation of clove, rosemary, eucalyptus, tea tree, spearmint, thyme, and cinnamon bark essential oil components was achieved with good resolutions. In the combination of OPLC and Aliivibrio fischeri assay, the main essential oil components eugenol, borneol, (−)-R-carvone, thymol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial effect. The OPLC—2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) test showed two antioxidant components: eugenol and thymol.

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In this study, the antibacterial profiling of the ethanolic leaf extract of greater burdock (Arctium lappa L.) is demonstrated, applying thin-layer chromatography (TLC) coupled bioassays against the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the Gram-negative pepper pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. The main active component was isolated by eluting from the adsorbent bed and subjected to a targeted characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection–electrospray ionisation–mass spectrometry. The identification of the germacranolide sesquiterpene lactone onopordopicrin was based on its retardation factor, bioactivity in TLC-based methods, and retention tim as well as ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectra, compared to those of the reference substance isolated earlier in our laboratory from Onopordum acanthium leaf.

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The effect of Se(IV) and Cu(II) ions on the antibacterial activity of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (mycotoxins) was studied in BioArena as a complex bioautographic system. In the presence of 0.23 and 0.46 mg/100 mL Se(IV) the inhibition zones of mycotoxins were decreased, however, lower concentration (0.046 mg/100 mL) increased the antibacterial effect of aflatoxin B1. Cu(II) (1.53 mg/100 mL) enhanced the toxicity of mycotoxins. The results supported the possible role of formaldehyde and its reaction products (e.g. 1 O 2 , O 3 ) in the antibacterial-toxic action of mycotoxins. Cu(II) can probably generate and mobilise the formaldehyde molecules and so it could increase the toxicity with its potential reaction products. It is possible that the enzymatic or spontaneous methylation of Se(IV) takes place through formaldehyde, which may cause partial formaldehyde depletion in the system. The enhanced antibacterial effect at low concentration Se(IV) is overlapping with the often experienced prooxidant effect in cases of natural antioxidants.

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In this study, thin-layer chromatography—direct bioautography (TLC—DB) was used for guiding the isolation and identification of antibacterial constituents of Thymus vulgaris L. ethanol extract. This TLC—bioassay method enables the separation and detection of active components directly on the surface of chromatographic plates. They can be identified by comparison with reference substances or using physicochemical methods, preferably spectroscopic ones (liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry [LC—MS/MS], in the presented paper). The described method belongs to the effect-directed analyses (EDA). Seven bacterial strains were used as test organisms, both pathogenic and nonpathogenic, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as well as luminescent bacteria like Aliivibrio fischeri. Five fractions with the widest antimicrobial spectra were detected using TLC—DB, isolated by semi-preparative TLC and subjected to LC—MS/MS analyses. Finally, two bioactive components were tentatively identified, basing on their fragmentation pattern, as eriodictyol and 4,4′-dihydroxy-5,5′-diisopropyl-2,2′-dimethyl-3,6-bifenylodion.

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Thin-layer chromatography—direct bioautography (TLC—DB) followed by liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry (LC—MS/MS) was used for screening and tentative identification of the antibacterial constituents of Salvia officinalis L. ethanol extract. Seven bacterial strains were used as test organisms, both pathogenic and nonpathogenic, that is, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, luminescence gene-tagged Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola, and naturally luminescent marine bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri. Eight fractions with the widest antimicrobial spectrum were detected using TLC—DB, isolated by semi-preparative TLC, and subjected to LC—MS/MS analyses. Finally, five bioactive components were tentatively identified, based on their fragmentation pattern, such as salvigenin, cirsimaritin, rosmanol, carnosic acid, and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid.

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