Three sixteenth-century inscribed Bohemian chalices are known from the Carpathian Basin: one is from Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca, RO) and the other two are from the western Hungarian villages of Csönge and Egyházashetye. These objects have appeared numerous times in exhibitions and catalogues since the end of the nineteenth century, but their origin and history were never investigated. Aside from a description of the inscription and the stylistic features of the decoration, only the remarks ‘Slav inscription’ or ‘Hussite’ referred to the historical context. This study is an attempt to rectify this omission by uncovering the identity of the patrons, ascertaining how and when the chalices arrived in the Carpathian Basin, and establishing the circumstances in which the objects were acquired by new owners.
The study analyses the topography and the burial customs of the 11th–13th century graves excavated at Cluj-Mănăştur (Kolozsmonostor), together with their relationship to the settlement- and stone building remains of the site. It concludes how and how long could coexist from the 11th century onwards a county seat and a monastery surrounded by the same ramparts.
Several types of mineral beads can be found among the 11th–12th-century grave assemblages of the Carpathian Basin. This paper examines the distribution of fluorite beads representing one type in Central and Eastern Europe. The distribution patterns have enabled the identification of the source of the raw material and they also outline the period’s main trade routes