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  • Author or Editor: Ágnes Szénási x
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By the sampling on chickweed ( Stellaria media ) carried out from autumn till the end of spring, the occurrence of the larvae of 12 Thysanoptera species has been established under climatic conditions in Hungary. Only the larvae of T. atratus and T. tabaci were present in this period in relatively high number. Since chickweed is frequently infested by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) the continuous presence of the larvae of T. tabaci in the whole period is a notable circumstance. This relationship is one of the significant ways of the survival of tomato spotted wilt virus which might be a source of new epidemics.

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Among the blue, green, fluorescent yellow, red, white and yellow coloured sticky traps the fluorescent yellow caught greatest number of both females and males of the vine trips (Drepanothrips reuteri) followed by yellow. Other colours caught negligible numbers. Fluorescent yellow sticky traps proved to be suitable for the monitoring of the flight activity of the vine thrips during the vegetative season. Both females and males immigrated in high number to the vineyards throughout the vegetation period. Based on trends of catches of the males the species develops presumably threes or four overlapping generations in a year under the climatic conditions of Hungary. The fluorescent yellow sticky traps tested in the present study may offer an usable tool for detection and monitoring of this pest.

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Specimens of Thrips tabaci Lindeman were collected on numerous plant species in the Hungarian National Parks as well as on ruderal vegetations, but no males were found. At the same time both females and males occurred on the following cultivated plants: on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa), as well as on weed plants as Galinsoga parviflora, Datura stramonium, Stellaria media. Only thelotokous populations were observed on cabbage occurring frequently in high individual number. The ratio between females and males continuously changed during the vegetation period. The occurrence and host range of the studied arrhenotokous populations do not confirm the existence of the subspecies Thrips tabaci tabaci (arrhenotokous) and T. tabaci communis (thelotokous), nor the correlation between the longitudinal occurrence of males and the physiological factors existing inside the Allium plants.

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Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is spread by Thrips tabaci tabaci nominate subspecies in the field under climatic conditions of Carpathian Basin. The overwintered females harbouring the pathogen proved to be the most important vector in the outbreak of epidemics in the tobacco growing district. Among the numerous host plants, the winter annual and the perennial weeds provide the survival of the pathogen. Infected weeds as Asclepias syriaca, Convolvulus arvensis grown in vineyards far from the tobacco fields and greenhouses indicate the wide spread of TSWV. Chickweed (Stellaria media) being a suitable host both for TSWV and the overwintering T. tabaci specimens constitutes the most dangerous source of epidemics. As a result of the common effect of the application of insecticides in accordance with the monitoring of T. tabaci, the centralized cultivation of the seedlings and the weed-free surroundings of the nurseries, the occurrence of TSWV was reduced to the minimum level in tobacco fields.

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Authors: G. Jenser, Aszteria Almási, Gabriella Kazinczi, A. Takács, Ágnes Szénási and R. Gáborjányi

Ecological background of the dissimilar ways of the spread of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was investigated in the fields in tobacco stands and in the greenhouses in forced green pepper and tomato cultures, under continental climatic conditions in Hungary.

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