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Kódextöredékek Pauer János székesfehérvári püspök inkunábulumaiban

Codex fragments in the incunabula of bishop of Székesfehérvár, János Pauer

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Ágnes Tóvizi


In the late 19th century a few Quattrocento initials and border ornaments were glued into the incunabula of the Pauer collection in the Episcopal Library of Székesfehérvár. The pictures are by Venetian illuminators painted for liturgical choir books. Bishop of Székesfehérvár János Pauer collected incunabula between 1879 and 1886 and probably obtained five complete large manuscript folios at that time as well. The parchment sheets were probably cut up by printer Kálmán Számmer upon the bishop's commission. Számmer completed the missing initials with hand painting, coloured the printed initials and sometimes composed colourful letters or a whole ornate title-page around a 15th century manuscript fragment stuck into the incunabulum. Among the fragments the most significant pieces are Cristoforo Cortese's signed initial showing St Francis enthroned surrounded by the host of angels and another Cortese fragment of two Franciscan monks. Similarly to the initial showing St Francis' death in the Wildenstein collection (Paris, Musée Marmottan), the illumination was presumably made after 1426, following Cortese's move to Bologna. The closest analogy of the Székesfehérvár composition is a Maiestas domini miniature painted by the “master of 1346” of Bologna. Originally, the codex from which the folio illuminated by Cortese comes was possibly made for a Franciscan community in Bologna, perhaps the Santi Ludovico e Alessio Convent of St Clare nuns ransacked by Napoleon's troops in 1798. The depiction of St Francis surrounded by adoring angels is remarkable for its iconography because it is a so-far unknown variant of the Franciscus alter Christus idea. The illuminator of the other four large initials showing half-length figures of prophets in Székesfehérvár is a later follower of the Master of San Michele a Murano. So far research has linked up three works by this master; the Székesfehérvár pictures show very close kinship with two initials dated to 1470 (New Haven, Yale University Art Gallery, and private collection, resp.).

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Une oeuvre inconnue de Robert Boyvin à Budapest

Et les cycles vétéro-testamentaires dans les livres d'heures de Roue

Acta Historiae Artium Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Ágnes Tóvizi


The Book of Hours Cod. Lat. 227 of the Széchényi National Library in Budapest was illuminated in Rouen at the end of the 15th century with a series of scenes from the Ancient Testament. It can be compared both in style and in iconography with the ms. W. 224 in the Baltimore Walters Art Museum, the ms. 5 in the Cherbourg Bibliothèque municipale and the ms. H. 1 of the Pierpont Morgan Library. In the manuscripts of Baltimore and Cherbourg the most of the typological connections were borrowed from the Speculum humanae salvationis and the compositions go back to the Lyon edition of 1478. The typological connections and the compositions in the Budapest manuscript follow an edition of the Biblia pauperum blockbook. The Cherbourg manuscript was illuminated in the workshop of the Master of the Échevinage de Rouen, the other three Books of Hours were painted by Robert Boyvin, a miniaturist working one generation later. The miniatures of the manuscript in Budapest presumably preserve some lost compositions of the Master of the Échevinage de Rouen.

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