Authors:Csaba Kővágó, Ákos Hornyák, Violetta Kékesi, and Miklós Rusvai
Complete genome sequences of bovine viral diarrhoea virus types 1 and 2 (BVDV-1 and 2) deposited in the GenBank were submitted to bioinformatic analysis using a recombination-detecting software. The results indicate that recombination events are not rare in the case of BVDV, which frequently causes immunotolerance and, consequently, persistent infection in calves. The lack of specific immunity provides an ideal possibility for multiple infections by antigenically related but genetically different BVDV strains, and hence recombinations may occur. Among the 62 BVDV-1 genomes five recombinants and their possible parent strains, while among the 50 BVDV-2 genomes one simple recombinant and its parent strains were identified, which were supported by extremely strong probability values (P values varying between 1.26 × 10–4 and 1.58 × 10–310). Besides the newly identified recombinants, recombination events described previously were confirmed, but in some of these cases former information was completed with new data, or different parent(s) were suggested by the programme (RDP 4.46 BETA) used in this study.
Authors:Béla Lakatos, Ákos Hornyák, Zoltán Demeter, Petra Forgách, Frances Kennedy, and Miklós Rusvai
Adenoviral nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of a cat that had suffered from disseminated adenovirus infection. The identity of the amplified products from the hexon and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase genes was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The sequences were clearly distinguishable from corresponding hexon and polymerase sequences of other mastadenoviruses, including human adenoviruses. These results suggest the possible existence of a distinct feline adenovirus.
Authors:Ágnes Szabára, Zsolt Lang, József Földi, Ákos Hornyák, Tamás Abonyi, and László Ózsvári
A study was performed to survey the virological prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus (BVDV) in cattle herds in Hungary between 2008 and 2012. A total of 40,413 samples for BVDV detection and 24,547 samples for antibody testing were collected from 3,247 herds (570,524 animals), thus representing approximately 75% of the cattle population in Hungary. Retrospective Bayesian analysis demonstrated that (1) the herd-level true virus prevalence was 12.4%, (2) the mean individual (within-herd) true virus prevalence was 7.2% in the herds having at least one virus-positive animal and 0.89% for all investigated herds with a mean apparent prevalence of 1.15% for the same population. This is the first study about BVDV prevalence in Hungary.
Authors:István Mészáros, Ferenc Olasz, Enikő Kádár-Hürkecz, Ádám Bálint, Ákos Hornyák, Sándor Belák, and Zoltán Zádori
Feline enteric coronaviruses have three open reading frames (ORFs) in region 3 (3a, 3b, and 3c). All three ORFs were expressed with C-terminal eGFP and 3xFLAG tags in different cell lines and their localisation was determined. ORF 3a is predicted to contain DNA-binding and transcription activator domains, and it is localised in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. ORF 3b is also predicted to contain DNA-binding and activator domains, and was found to localise in the mitochondrion. Besides that, in some of the non-infected and FIPV-infected cells nucleolar, perinuclear or nuclear membrane accumulation of the eGFP-tagged 3b was observed. The exact compartmental localisation of ORF 3c is yet to be determined. However, based on our co-localisation studies 3c does not seem to be localised in the ER-Golgi network, ERGIC or peroxisomes. The expression of 3c-eGFP is clearly cell type dependent, it is more stable in MARC 145 cells than in Fcwf-4 or CrFK cells, which might reflect in vivo stability differences of 3c in natural target cells (enterocytes vs. monocytes/macrophages).
Authors:Andor Doszpoly, Ákos Hornyák, and Krisztián Bányai
The complete genomic sequence along with phylogenetic analyses of an adenovirus (AdV), isolated from a dead captive pygmy marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea) from a Hungarian zoo is reported. Earlier, based on the phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of a PCR-amplified fragment from the DNA polymerase gene, the pygmy marmoset AdV (PMAdV) has been reported to cluster closest to certain chiropteran AdVs. In the following years similar AdVs were discovered in additional mammalian hosts, including a skunk (Mephitis mephitis), African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), North American porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) and grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). After the full genome analysis of the skunk adenovirus (SkAdV-1), a novel species Skunk mastadenovirus A (SkAdV-A) has been established. The AdVs, originating from the African pygmy hedgehogs, have been found to belong to virus species SkAdV-A. Partial gene sequences from the porcupine AdVs have also implied their very close genetic relatedness to SkAdV-A. The complete genomic sequence of PMAdV, examined in this study, was found to share 99.83% nucleotide identity with SkAdV-1, thus unequivocally represents a genomic variant of SkAdV-1. The observation that viruses classifiable as SkAdV-A are able to infect and cause diseases in several, distantly related mammals seems to deserve further studies to elucidate the infection biology of this intriguing AdV.
Authors:Csaba Kővágó, Petra Forgách, Ágnes Szabára, Míra Mándoki, Ákos Hornyák, Conor Duignan, Erzsébet Pásztiné Gere, and Miklós Rusvai
Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is a viral disease appearing in various forms and causing high economic losses in the cattle stocks of Hungary. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Hungary through a monitoring survey carried out on samples collected in cattle-keeping units throughout the country. Since no such survey had been carried out in Hungary during the last thirty years, our study may serve as a basis for later monitoring investigations aimed at following the progress of an expected eradication campaign of BVD. The tests were carried out using an ELISA method, on a total of 1200 blood samples submitted from 54 cattle herds. The herds had not been vaccinated against BVDV before the sampling. Out of the 1200 samples, 521 proved to be positive (43.4%), 40 gave doubtful result (3.3%) and 639 were negative (53.3%). In some stocks the samples were collected from cows having completed several lactation periods, and therefore the seronegativity indicates the BVDV-free status of the given stock. Moreover, among the positive herds we found a few where the seropositivity rate was rather low (< 5%). According to the results of the survey, a rather high portion (about one third) of the cattle-keeping units of Hungary can be regarded as BVDV free, which ratio is much higher than had been expected on the basis of surveys carried out on a lower number of samples and in smaller regions of the country. Hence, the chances of an eradication campaign launched in the near future, or carried out parallel to the IBR eradication programme, are better than previously expected.
Authors:Levente Szeredi, Ádám Dán, Péter Malik, Szilárd Jánosi, and Ákos Hornyák
An epizootic caused by a new orthobunyavirus called Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was recognised in European ruminants in 2011 and 2012. The re-emergence of the infection was reported in several countries in the subsequent years. Although the main clinical sign of SBV infection is abortion, the impact of SBV in natural cases of abortion in domestic ruminants had not been systematically examined before this study. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of SBV infection and to compare it to the importance of other causes of abortion by examining 537 natural cases of abortion that had occurred between 2011 and 2017 in Hungary. The cause of abortion was determined in 165 (31%) cases. An infectious cause was proved in 88 (16%) cases. SBV infection was found only in a total of four cases (0.8%) using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Three of them proved to be inapparent SBV infection, and one case was attributed to SBV-induced abortion by detecting non-purulent encephalitis and SBV nucleoprotein by immunohistochemistry in a brain tissue sample. According to the results, SBV played a minor role in natural cases of domestic ruminant abortion in Hungary during the 7-year period following the first SBV outbreak in 2011.