The effect of various environmental factors on the stability of aqueous solutions of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination in a veterinary water-soluble powder product was investigated. In the swine industry, the combination is administered via the drinking water, where both substances are quickly decomposed depending on several environmental factors. The degradation rate of the substances was determined in solutions of different water hardness levels (German hardness of 2, 6 and 10) and pH values (3.0, 7.0 and 10.0), and in troughs made of different materials (metal or plastic). Increasing the water hardness decreased the stability of both substances, amoxicillin being more stable at each hardness value than clavulanate. Amoxicillin trihydrate proved to be most stable at an acidic pH, while increasing the pH decreased its stability (P < 0.05). Maximum stability of potassium clavulanate was experienced at neutral pH, while its decomposition rate was significantly higher at acidic and alkaline pH values (P < 0.01). The stability of the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination depends mainly on the less stable clavulanate, although the effect of metallic ions significantly increased the decomposition rate of amoxicillin, rendering it less stable in metal troughs than clavulanate (P < 0.05). Therefore, the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination should be administered to the animals in soft water, at neutral pH and in plastic troughs.
The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to marbofloxacin and gentamicin, and investigate the possible synergistic, additive, indifferent or antagonistic effects between the two agents. P. aeruginosa strains can develop resistance quickly against certain antibiotics if used alone, thus the need emerges to find synergistic combinations. A total of 68 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from dogs were examined. In order to describe interactions between marbofloxacin and gentamicin the checkerboard microdilution method was utilized. The MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations) for marbofloxacin and gentamicin were in the range 0.25–64 mg/L and 0.25–32 mg/L, respectively. The combination of marbofloxacin and gentamicin was more effective with a MIC range of 0.031–8 mg/L and a MIC90 of 1 mg/L, compared to 16 mg/L for marbofloxacin alone and 8 mg/L for gentamicin alone. The FIC (fractional inhibitory concentration) indices ranged from 0.0945 (pronounced synergy) to 1.0625 (indifference). Synergy between marbofloxacin and gentamicin was found in 33 isolates. The mean FIC index is 0.546, which represents a partial synergistic/additive effect close to the full synergy threshold. In vitro results indicate that marbofloxacin and gentamicin as partially synergistic agents may prove clinically useful in combination therapy against P. aeruginosa infections. Although marbofloxacin is not used in the human practice, the interactions between fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides may have importance outside the veterinary field.
Authors:Ákos Jerzsele, Béla Gyetvai, István Csere and Péter Gálfi
Malassezia pachydermatis is a commonly isolated yeast in veterinary dermatology that can produce biofilms in vitro and in vivo, lowering its susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the in vitro susceptibility of planktonic cells and biofilms of M. pachydermatis isolates to ketoconazole and itraconazole. The presence of biofilm formation was confirmed by crystal violet staining and absorbance measurement at 595 nm wavelength, and by a scanning electron microscopy method. Cell viability was determined by the Celltiter 96 Aqueous One solution assay containing a water-soluble tetrazolium compound (MTS) with absorbance measurement at 490 nm. Planktonic cell minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of ketoconazole and itraconazole were very low: MIC90 and MFC90 were 0.032 and 0.125 μg/ml for ketoconazole, while 0.063 and 0.25 μg/ml for itraconazole, respectively. Also, the half maximal effective concentrations (EC50) of itraconazole were higher for planktonic cells and biofilms compared to ketoconazole. The EC50 values of ketoconazole were 18–169 times higher and those of itraconazole 13–124 times higher for biofilms than for planktonic cells. Biofilm EC50 levels exceeded MICs 103–2060 times for ketoconazole and 84–1400 times for itraconazole. No significant difference was found between these values of the two substances. In conclusion, biofilms of all examined M. pachydermatis strains were much less susceptible to ketoconazole and itraconazole than their planktonic forms.
Authors:Béla Gyetvai, Ákos Jerzsele, Erzsébet Pászti-Gere, Gábor Nagy and Péter Gálfi
Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used in combination with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) in topical drug formulations. It is not known, however, whether DMSO can enhance the permeation of gentamicin through biological membranes, leading to oto- and nephrotoxic side effects. A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was applied for the quantitative determination of gentamicin collected from the apical and basolateral compartments of the porcine intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 cell monolayer using fluorometric derivatisation of the analyte with fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride (FMOC) prior to chromatographic run in the presence and absence of 1% DMSO. The lack of change in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) demonstrated that gentamicin and 1% DMSO did not affect IPEC-J2 cell monolayer integrity via the disruption of cell membranes. Chromatographic data also ascertained that gentamicin penetration across the cell monolayer even in the presence of 1% DMSO was negligible at 6 h after the beginning of apical gentamicin administration. This study further indicates that the addition of this organic solvent does not increase the incidence of toxic effects related to gentamicin permeation.