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  • Author or Editor: Ákos Nemcsics x
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In the Carpathian-basin many of the early-medieval church types were the rotundas, but the majority of these churches have not survived in their original form. Most of these churches were modified into larger churches, or were destroyed during the Ottoman invasion. In this paper, it is proved, that the rotundas in the Carpathian-basin are not the result of adoption. Their large numbers, described by their small sizes and special forms, supports this supposition. This paper covers the reconstruction work of a rotunda in the mountains of Gerecse. During excavation, not only the hewn stones of the foundation walling were found but other findings come to light as well. The reconstruction plan of the church was assisted by these findings and also by data of other similar churches survived in their original form. The church was reconstructed not far from the place of the excavation using contemporary technology. The reconstruction of the church is the center part of this work, but we will also talk briefly about the process of implementation and the technology of the age as well.

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In this paper, the knowledge of the medieval building technology, which originated from the miniatures depicting building processes and from contemporary descriptions, is enhanced. This knowledge however is restricted entirely to picturing churches and fortifications constructed of cut and hewn stones. These miniatures only depict the building methods of the rich elite of the time. The available information therefore is biased. The early buildings and the simpler constructions, like village churches are often constructed from rough, uncut stones. The road to the discovery of this kind of building technology is via experimental method. This experimental reconstruction of a round church made of rough stones shed light on a number of details of the building technology of the time. These discoveries are e.g. the method of scaffolding and the technological role of the knee wall.

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In dieser Arbeit geht es um die Mauerung in Opus spicatum-Form, wobei die Schlussfolgerungen der Arbeit im Laufe der Untersuchung der mittelalterlichen Fischgrätenmusterungen im Karpatenbecken entstanden. Die Vorstellung, dass die Mauerung nur als Dekoration diente, kann im Fall der untersuchten mittelalterlichen Kirchen nicht akzeptiert werden, denn die Mauerungen wurden oft mit Putz oder – im Falle des Fundaments – mit Erde bedeckt. In der Architektur unserer Vorfahren war die Strebung nach Zweckmäßigkeit überall zu finden – das kann auch im Fall der Fischgrätenmusterung bewiesen werden. Es wird nachgewiesen, dass die Fischgrätenmusterung bei der Fundamentierung vor der teilweisen Versenkung schützen kann, während sie im Fall der nach oben ragenden Mauerung bei Mantelmauerungen bautechnologische Vorteile hat. Der kritische Teil dieser Konstruktion ist die Unterstützung, d. h. die Mauerecken bzw. die Anschlüsse, aber dazu gibt es leider sehr wenig Angaben, so dass also weitere Untersuchungen erforderlich sind.

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Kora középkori templomaink jelentékeny része kerektemplom volt, ám ezeknek a templomoknak a nagy része nem maradt meg eredeti valójában: többet átépítettek egy későbbi, több ember befogadására alkalmas templom építése során, illetve s__

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