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Magma/wet sediment interaction (e.g. autobrecciation, magma-sediment mingling, hyaloclastite and peperite-forming, etc.) is a common phenomenon, where hot magma intrudes into unconsolidated or poorly consolidated water saturated sediment. In the Eastern Borsod Basin (NE-Hungary) relatively small (2–30 m) subvolcanic bodies, sills and dykes with contact lithofacies zones were found generated by mechanical stress and quenching of the magma, and interacting with unconsolidated wet andesitic lapilli-tuff and tuff-breccia. Close to the contact between sediment and intrusions, thermal and mechanical effects may occur in the host sediment. Hydrothermal alteration and stratification of the host sediment were developed only locally along the contact zone, probably due to the paleo-hydrogeologic and paleo-rheological inhomogeneities of the lapilli-tuff–tuff-breccia deposits. Processes of magma/wet sediment interaction may be difficult to recognize because of limited exposure and/or certain similarities of the brecciated intrusions to the characteristics of the host sediment; hence detailed field work (geologic mapping or profiling) was required to demonstrate the subvolcanic origin of the brecciated andesite bodies.

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: Tibor József Novák, Árpád Csámer, József Incze, István Papp, and Péter Rózsa

The forms and stocks of secondary carbonate accumulations and the distribution of secondary carbonate content were investigated in 20 soil profiles from Nagy-hegy, Tokaj. The secondary carbonate content varied to a great extent under different lithological conditions. The frequency of carbonate crusts coating the coarse fragments to a thickness of 1–7 mm was especially conspicuous. In selected profiles the amount of secondary carbonates was analysed separately for three carbonate pools: in the fine earth (<2 mm), in carbonate crusts and other concentrations, and in the skeletal part of the soils (dominantly dacite blocks and boulders). In one profile a calculation was made of the calcium carbonate stocks (in kg m−2) in the separate fractions of the fine earth, the skeletal fraction and the carbonate crusts and concentrations. The values obtained for the distinct soil horizons were then summed for the whole profile above the continuous hard rock.

The loess deposits can be regarded as the primary source of calcium carbonate, but many types of secondary carbonate accumulations occurred in places where the loess deposits were completely eroded or the original surface of the soil was only preserved on terraces with retaining walls. The results suggest that the highest accumulation of calcium carbonate occurs in profiles where loess, redeposited loess or colluvial deposit covers weathered volcanic rocks (pyroxene dacite), resulting in lithological discontinuity.

The carbonate crusts consisted of 55–96 % (m/m) CaCO3, and the coarse fraction (dacite boulders and blocks) also had a higher calcium carbonate content (5–10 % m/m) than the non-weathered pyroxene dacite. The calcium carbonate stocks in Calcic accumulation horizons proved to be 2.5 times higher than in the overlying soil horizons.

The accumulation forms of carbonates in the soil profiles and the lack of loess deposits on the top of the soil profiles suggest that the calcium carbonate was accumulated in the transitional zone between the loess and the weathered volcanic rocks. This appears to have taken place under humid climatic conditions, unlike the recent climate, and can thus be regarded at least partially as the result of paleoecological processes.

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Flow-like landslides are a serious geologic hazard that can cause life and property loss all over the world. Mudflow is a kind of debris flow that has been classified as a non-Newtonian flow. The Smoothed particle hydrodynamics method (SPH) is a powerful tool for modeling fluids, such as debris/mudflows, which can be described in terms of local interactions of their constituent parts. In this paper, the Herschel-Buckley rheology model and SPH are used to simulate free-surface mudflow under the gate. The run-out distance and velocity of mudflow during the time are calculated with numerical simulation and compared with the laboratory result. Our results indicate the rate of increase of run-out and viscosity in the computer model is more than the experimental model and it is because of friction that is assumed to be zero. In the computer simulation, friction is exactly zero but in the experimental model, it could be measured and assumed zero. Finally, Abacus had a good result and can be used for mudflow simulation and protection of run-out distance and viscosity.

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