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  • Author or Editor: Árpád Csathó x
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A fáradtság szorosan hozzátartozik az egészséges mindennapjainkhoz és a betegségeinkhez is. Ennek köszönhetően a fáradtság-jelenségekkel kapcsolatos vizsgálatok száma jelentős, de az összetevők nagy száma és az egyes jelenségek variabilitása mind a mai napig komoly nehézség elé állítja a fáradtság-kutatást. A jelen áttekintő tanulmány célja az, hogy átfogó képet adjon a leggyakoribb, illetve a legjobban dokumentált krónikus fáradtság-jelenségekről, például a post-stroke fáradtságról, a krónikus fáradtság szindrómáról és a depressziós fáradtságról. A felsorolt példákon keresztül láthatóvá válik a fáradtság sokdimenziós, a biológiai és pszichológiai mechanizmusok hálózatára épülő jellege. A tanulmány célja ugyanakkor az is, hogy bemutasson egy elméleti koncepciót, a főbb módszertani lehetőségeket, és a kutatási terület kulcskérdéseit.

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In the vast majority of mammalian species, including humans, males provide less direct care to their offspring than females do. However, the theory of sexual selection suggests that the expression of paternal investment involves trade-offs between mating and parental effort associated with reproductive and survival related costs and benefits. In this view, different social and biological factors can distribute males' reproductive investment across parenting and mating behavior. As for social factors, the quality of resources held by males is one of the primary determinants of males' reproductive success. As for biological factors, the physical attractiveness is also highly correlated with males' mating success through enhanced access to females. In the present study the effect of males' socioeconomic status and facial attractiveness on direct childcare was tested on a sample of 81 Hungarian families. The first prediction was that males who possess lower status tend to engage more in direct childcare than males with higher status. This prediction was partially supported in our results. Second, we predicted that males rated more attractive provide less amount of direct paternal effort. The results seem to support this view in the case of men with higher socioeconomic status.

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Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Fekete Gabriella, Csathó Árpád, Pléh Csaba, and Torma Noémi
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The mental rotation is a classical paradigm in cognitive psychology. Recent tests demonstrate that the linearity coefficient (r2) is an appropriate variable to show the cognitive appearance (cognitive strategy) of mental rotation. It is well documented that males perform better than females on object mental rotation. The present work is the first demonstration of a sex difference of cognitive strategy used during mental rotation. A linearity coefficient of females was higher than the coefficient of males. This result implies that females use a more active and powerful mental rotation strategy. This is very important from the viewpoint of some methodology. In the cognitive neuroscience there are various fMRI and MEG works which measure brain activity during mental rotation. However, beside the demonstration of mental rotation paradigm, it may be very important provide that subjects at whom occur actually the mental rotation during brain scanning. 

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A Sötét Triád személyiségvonások mint a gyors életmenet-stratégiák indikátorai: A korai stresszhatások, a kedvezőtlen körülményekhez való alkalmazkodás hatása a személyiségfejlődésre

The dark triad as indicator of fast life history strategies: The impact of early stressors and adaptation to adverse circumstances on personality development

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Béla Birkás and Árpád Csathó

Life history theory posits that behavioural adaptation to various environmental (ecological and/or social) conditions encountered during childhood is regulated by a wide variety of different traits resulting in various behavioural strategies. Unpredictable and harsh conditions tend to produce fast life history strategies, characterised by early maturation, a higher number of sexual partners to whom one is less attached and less parenting of offspring. Unpredictability and harshness not only affect dispositional social and emotional functioning, it may also promote the development of personality traits linked to higher rates of instability in social relationships or more self-interested behaviour. Similarly, detrimental childhood experiences, such as poor parental care or high parent-child conflict affect personality development and may create a more distrustful, malicious interpersonal style. The aim of this brief review is to survey and summarise findings on the impact of negative early-life experiences on development of personality and fast life history strategies. By showing that there are parallels in adaptations to adversity in these two domains we hope to lend weight to current and future attempts to provide a comprehensive insight of personality traits and functions on the ultimate and proximate levels.

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