In the present investigation a cylindrical electrostatic precipitator was built into a cyclone's outlet tubes, and was tested at various dusts and voltages. It has been found that the penetration (the unremoved fraction of the dust) for the airborne particles (d < 10 mm) in the case of working built in electrostatic precipitator, decreased to 5–10% of the penetration of the (only) mechanical cyclone operation. The penetration data is given at various dusts and voltages. All are proving that the method is working satisfactorily. If the voltage was smaller than the on set voltage of the discharge, the better performance could be observed. It means that with electric field it is possible to utilize the tribo-charge of the dust particles caused by the collision with the wall of the cyclone.
Agreement and case assignment can be interdependent, partially independent, or independent of each other (Baker & Vinokurova 2010; Baker 2014, 2015). These parametric options appear to have random distribution across languages. This paper claims on the basis of the comparison of the Ugric languages (Mansi, Khanty, and Hungarian) that the correlation of case and agreement or the lack of it may not be random. A strict correlation of case and agreement is attested in sentence structures displaying a fusion of grammatical functions and discourse roles. When these roles are encoded in distinct clausal domains, case and agreement have separate functions and licensing conditions, with case marking grammatical functions, and agreement associated with discourse roles. At the same time, relics of their former syntactic interdependence may survive in morphology, resulting in a partial correlation between case and agreement. It is shown that dependent case theory can account for the whole range of variation attested in the relation of case and agreement.
Putative inhibitory effect of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ 1/93 mild strain was tested under greenhouse conditions against the related ESFY and the distantly related STOL and AAY strains of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’, respectively, which are responsible for serious damages and yield losses in fruit orchards across Europe. A consequent decrease of the DNA amount of the virulent GSFY strain analysed by PCR and Real-Time PCR could be observed when the plants were preliminary immunised by 1/93 strain. The cross-protection phenomenon proved to be effective between closely related strains, but no inhibition occurred among distantly related strains due to preliminary infection. Our results support that immunization with a mild, antagonist strain can be of phytopathological relevance in phytoplasmal researches.
The degree of soil pollutants in the Dunaújváros area has been monitored regularly at 10 sampling points of the town from the upper 0–20 cm and lower 20–40 cm layers of the soils. The quantity of some organic (PAH, TPH) and inorganic (toxic metal) pollutants were determined by GC-MS and ICP analyzation. Microbial status, such as the total cultivable bacteria (CFU) and total catabolic enzyme activity, measured by fluorescein diacetate analysis (FDA) were also estimated. The area of the industrial town could be divided into more and less contaminated regions, although the measured pollutants were far below the estimated permissible limits. However, at some of the more polluted soils even triple amounts of contaminants could be measured compared to the lesscontaminated sites. Among inorganics the Zn microelement reached the highest levels (average is about 100 mg·kg−1 soil), which could be related to the heavy industrial activity. A positive correlation appeared among the organic and inorganic pollutants and also between the pollutants and the measured enzymatic values. The enhanced FDA activity was found at the most contaminated sites preceding the potential “loss of function” on a long-term basis. The fast and reliable microbial parameter could be suggested as further regular monitoring tool.
This paper proposes an explanation of the apparent scope inversion attested in sentences pronounced with a rise fall intonation contour. It argues that a left-peripheral quantifier pronounced with a (fall-)rise is in topic position (Spec, TopP). A topic phrase must refer to an individual already present in the domain of discourse-that which will be predicated about in the sentence. Non-individual-denoting expressions, among them quantifiers, can also be made suitable for the topic role if they are assumed to denote a property which the rest of the sentence predicates some higher-order property about. A quantifier functioning as a contrastive topic denotes a property of plural individuals, and its apparent narrow scope arises from the fact that it is considered to be a predicate over a variable inherent in the lexical representation of the verb.
Recent developments of nanotechnology ﬁnd its way into various ﬁelds of food production in our days. Nanotechnology could oﬀer beneﬁts in development of food products with enhanced functionality for health promotion, or modiﬁed texture convenient for elderly, and in quality and safety issues in the food supply chain. Nanoencapsulated bioactive components such as vitamins, antibacterial agents contribute to production of enriched food stuﬀs with the required appearance, ﬂavour, taste, and texture. Nanomaterials can protect the sensitive compounds from environmental attack, release them in a programmed way, and provide favourable improvement in the bioavailability of nutraceuticals. The innovative approach in food packaging, including the detection, indication, and control of food products, serves the quality and safety improvements.