In the present investigation a cylindrical electrostatic precipitator was built into a cyclone's outlet tubes, and was tested at various dusts and voltages. It has been found that the penetration (the unremoved fraction of the dust) for the airborne particles (d < 10 mm) in the case of working built in electrostatic precipitator, decreased to 5–10% of the penetration of the (only) mechanical cyclone operation. The penetration data is given at various dusts and voltages. All are proving that the method is working satisfactorily. If the voltage was smaller than the on set voltage of the discharge, the better performance could be observed. It means that with electric field it is possible to utilize the tribo-charge of the dust particles caused by the collision with the wall of the cyclone.
Recent developments of nanotechnology ﬁnd its way into various ﬁelds of food production in our days. Nanotechnology could oﬀer beneﬁts in development of food products with enhanced functionality for health promotion, or modiﬁed texture convenient for elderly, and in quality and safety issues in the food supply chain. Nanoencapsulated bioactive components such as vitamins, antibacterial agents contribute to production of enriched food stuﬀs with the required appearance, ﬂavour, taste, and texture. Nanomaterials can protect the sensitive compounds from environmental attack, release them in a programmed way, and provide favourable improvement in the bioavailability of nutraceuticals. The innovative approach in food packaging, including the detection, indication, and control of food products, serves the quality and safety improvements.
Agreement and case assignment can be interdependent, partially independent, or independent of each other (Baker & Vinokurova 2010; Baker 2014, 2015). These parametric options appear to have random distribution across languages. This paper claims on the basis of the comparison of the Ugric languages (Mansi, Khanty, and Hungarian) that the correlation of case and agreement or the lack of it may not be random. A strict correlation of case and agreement is attested in sentence structures displaying a fusion of grammatical functions and discourse roles. When these roles are encoded in distinct clausal domains, case and agreement have separate functions and licensing conditions, with case marking grammatical functions, and agreement associated with discourse roles. At the same time, relics of their former syntactic interdependence may survive in morphology, resulting in a partial correlation between case and agreement. It is shown that dependent case theory can account for the whole range of variation attested in the relation of case and agreement.
This paper aims to answer why the Uralic languages use, or used until intensive contacts with Indo-European languages, only non-finite subordination. It argues against regarding the evolution of finite subordination language development, showing that languages with non-finite subordination and parataxis have the same expressive power as languages with finite subordination. It claims that non-finite subordination is a concomitant of SOV word order, and the growing proportion of finite subordination in the Uralic languages from east to west, and in the history of Hungarian is a consequence of the loosening of the SOV order and the emergence of SVO. The paper examines two hypotheses about the correlations between SOV and non-finite subordination, and SVO and finite subordination, the Final-Over-Final Condition of Biberauer, Holmberg & Roberts (2014, etc.), a formal principle constraining clausal architecture, and the Minimize Domains Principle of Hawkins (2004, etc.), a functional principle of processing efficiency. The two theories make largely overlapping correct predictions for the Uralic languages, which suggests that the Final-Over-Final Condition may be the syntacticization of the condition that ensures processing efficiency in SOV and SVO languages.
Putative inhibitory effect of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ 1/93 mild strain was tested under greenhouse conditions against the related ESFY and the distantly related STOL and AAY strains of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’, respectively, which are responsible for serious damages and yield losses in fruit orchards across Europe. A consequent decrease of the DNA amount of the virulent GSFY strain analysed by PCR and Real-Time PCR could be observed when the plants were preliminary immunised by 1/93 strain. The cross-protection phenomenon proved to be effective between closely related strains, but no inhibition occurred among distantly related strains due to preliminary infection. Our results support that immunization with a mild, antagonist strain can be of phytopathological relevance in phytoplasmal researches.
A destructive seed-borne pathogen, formerly described as Pleospora papaveracea affects opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants, grown in Hungary, causing considerable qualitative and quantitative losses. The symptoms of the disease were frequently observed in the field between 1999 and 2006. Seventeen Hungarian isolates were obtained from poppy and cultures were established on malt extract agar from naturally infected seeds, diseased foliage, pods and stem. The pathogens proved to be Crivellia papaveracea and a distinct taxon, Brachycladium papaveris based on morphological characterization of conidia, conidiophores and cultures, moreover molecular investigation of the ITS region. Significant morphological differences were observed among the isolates originating from distinct plant parts, however, cultural characteristics were similar. Molecular studies revealed that morphological and cultural differences or similarities do not correspond with taxonomic position of the isolates. Morphological variation of the isolates mainly depended on their origin and might be explained with the differences of microclimatic conditions.