Periphyton spamles from the reed-belt and phytoplankton samples were taken in November 1996 and in January, April, July 1997 at the upper part of the Soroksár-Danube (the second largest side arm of river Danube in Hungary) at Taksony, and in July, November 1998, January, April 1999 at the middle part of the side arm at Ráckeve. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal and vertical distribution of periphyton growing on old and green reed stemps at both parts of the side arm, focussed on taxonomic composition, abundance and chlorophyll a content. Based on the chloropyll a content of the phytoplankton the upper part of the side arm at Taksony was oligotrophic in November an July (in July caused by a flood), mesotrophic in Januray and eutrophic in April. The middle part of the Soroksár-Danube was eutrophic in April and July, oligotrophic in November and January at Ráckeve The values of abundance and chlorophyll a of periphyton were the highest at the middle part of Soroksár-Danube, while that of phytoplankton was the highest at the upper part. A few diamonts showed the same distribution along the reed stems. Relative abudance of Amphora libyca, Cocconeis placentula and Eunotia arcus increased close to the bottom, while that of Fomphonema minutum, G. paravulum, Navicula capitatoradiata and Nitzschia dissipata decreased.
Authors:Éva Komlósi, László Szerb, Zoltán J. Ács and Raquel Ortega-Argilés
This paper presents a regional application of the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) methodology of Acs et al. (2013) to examine the level of entrepreneurship across Hungary’s seven NUTS-2 level regions between 2006 and 2012. The Regional Entrepreneurship and Development Index (REDI) has been constructed for capturing the individual efforts, and their contextual features, of entrepreneurship across regions. The REDI method builds on a Systems of Entrepreneurship Theory and provides a way to profile Regional Systems of Entrepreneurship. Important aspects of the REDI method include the Penalty for Bottleneck analysis, which helps in identifying constraining factors in Regional Systems of Entrepreneurship, and Policy Portfolio Optimisation analysis, which helps policymakers consider trade-offs between alternative policy scenarios and associated allocations of policy resources. The paper describes the entrepreneurial disparities amongst Hungarian regions and provides public policy suggestions to improve the level of entrepreneurship and to optimise resource allocation over the 14 pillars of entrepreneurship in the seven Hungarian regions.