The 16 somatic serotype type strains and 60 field isolates of Pasteurella multocida, representing various avian species and geographic regions in Hungary, were characterised by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the ompH gene with DraI restriction endonuclease. The type strains yielded eight different (I-VIII) profiles. Strains whose PCR fragment was uncut by DraI (profile IV) could be differentiated with HindIII and PvuII restriction endonucleases. Five of the eight PCR-RFLP profiles (I, III, V, VI and VII) were detected among the field strains. Only a correlation of limited strength was found between the classical somatic serotypes and the PCR-RFLP profiles. However, the results confirmed that molecular methods could confidently distinguish serotype A:1 strains from the other serotypes. Moreover, the specific relationship between somatic serotypes and PCR-RFLP types among isolates from turkey raises the possibility of the existence of host-specific clones within the P. multocida population.
In a goose flock consisting of 2300 birds of 6 months of age severe goitre was diagnosed. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of naturally occurring goitre in geese, which is not related to the feeding of rapeseed meal. The major pathological findings included retarded growth and plumage development, significantly (300%) increased relative thyroid weight, fat accumulation in the mesenteric and abdominal region, and lipid infiltration of liver and kidney cells. Subsequent hormone analysis showed undetectable thyroxine (T4) levels and a dramatic drop in triiodothyronine (T3) plasma levels of the diseased geese. Thy- roidal histology displayed the typical signs of struma parenchymatosa. In order to get more information about the possible causes of the goitre, 10 geese from the affected farm were transferred into the laboratories of the Central Veterinary Institute. The geese were allotted into two groups. Group I received iodine supplementation for 55 days, while the other group served as sick control (Group S). Iodine treatment caused a dramatic improvement in the birds clinical condition except in plumage growth in Group I, while the clinical and main pathological signs of goitre remained unchanged or worsened in the untreated Group S. Contrary to this, the serum levels of thyroid hormones and responsiveness to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) improved not only in Group I but also in Group S. Almost euthyroid biochemical parameters were found after 55 days of iodine treatment in Group I and, surprisingly, a considerable improvement (especially in serum T3 levels) occurred also in Group S. These findings confirm the diagnosis of goitre but also call attention to the fact that iodine deficiency was not the only factor eliciting the disorder. The underlying possible goitrogenic substance could not be traced down.
Sixty-one avian strains of
were characterised and compared by biochemical tests, capsular PCR typing and ERIC-PCR. The strains were recovered from various avian species (goose, duck, Muscovy duck, turkey, chicken and pheasant) and represented different geographic locations in Hungary. Forty-two strains (69%) were identified as
and 19 strains (31%) as
. The strains were grouped into 7 different biovars (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7). The most prevalent biovars were 1 (25%), 3 (21%) and 6 (21%). Most of the duck isolates (90%) belonged to biovar 1 or 6. The most frequent capsular type was A (93.5%). Type F represented only a small number (6.5%) of the strains. Other capsular types were not identified. From the 61 isolates 24 different fingerprint patterns were generated by ERIC-PCR assay. Based on cluster analysis the strains could be grouped into four larger and four mini-clusters that showed considerable correlation with the geographical origin and the host species. The results indicate that ERIC-PCR may be a suitable technique for studying the host adaptation of
and the epidemiology of fowl cholera.
Parvovirus infection of Muscovy ducks caused by a genetically and antigenically distinct virus has been reported from Germany, France, Israel, Hungary, some Asian countries and the USA. The pathological changes include those of degenerative skeletal muscle myopathy and myocarditis, hepatitis, sciatic neuritis and polioencephalomyelitis. In the study presented here, day-old and 3-week-old goslings and Muscovy ducks were infected experimentally with three different parvovirus strains (isolates of D-216/4 from the classical form of Derzsy's disease, D-190/3 from the enteric form of Derzsy's disease, and strain FM from the parvovirus disease of Muscovy ducks). All three parvovirus strains caused severe disease in both day-old and 3-week-old Muscovy ducks but in the goslings only the two strains of goose origin (D-216/4 and D-190/3) caused disease with high (90-100%) mortality when infection was performed at day old. Strain FM (of Muscovy duck origin) did not cause any clinical signs or pathological lesions in the goslings. In the day-old goslings and Muscovy ducks the principal pathological lesions were severe enteritis with necrosis of the epithelial cells (enterocytes) of the mucous membrane and the crypts of Lieberkühn, and the formation of intranuclear inclusion bodies. Other prominent lesions included hepatitis and atrophy (lymphocyte depletion) of the lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen). In goslings infected with the strain originating from the classical form of Derzsy's disease mild myocarditis was also detected. After infection at three weeks of age, growth retardation, feathering disorders, myocardial lesions (degeneration of cardiac muscle cells, lympho-histiocytic infiltration) and hepatitis were the most prominent lesions in both geese and Muscovy ducks. In addition to the lesions observed in the geese, muscle fibre degeneration, mild sciatic neuritis and polioencephalomyelitis were also observed in the Muscovy ducks infected with any of the three parvovirus strains.
Two outbreaks of severe acute disease characterised by hepatitis and hydropericardium were observed in young goslings on large-scale farms in Hungary. Histological examination revealed multifocal necrotic areas and two types of intranuclear inclusion bodies adjacent to necrotic areas in the liver. The most prominent type of inclusion bodies showed strong basophilic staining and completely filled the enlarged nucleus. The other type was eosinophilic and occupied the centre of the nucleus, which had margination of chromatin. In the heart, haemorrhage was associated with multifocal necrosis in the myocardium. The presence of fowl adenovirus DNA in different organs of the naturally infected goslings was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The virus was isolated, and identified as a goose adenovirus by genomic analysis. This is the first report on the involvement of a goose adenovirus in severe acute disease associated with hepatitis and hydropericardium.
Enterococcus cecorum is the most frequently occurring enterococcal species in the intestine of chickens of over 12 weeks of age, and there are few reports on its isolation from the skeleton of broiler parent chicks. In the present study, observations on vertebral osteomyelitis and spondylolisthesis (‘kinky back syndrome’) showing high incidence in 8 broiler parent flocks in different parts of Hungary are summarised. Clinical signs were seen only in roosters between 5 and 13 weeks of age. Diseased birds were alert and remained sitting on their hocks with their feet slightly raised off the ground. Incidence of the disease among male birds ranged from 8% to 30% depending on flocks. Enlargement and distortion of the body of the 6th vertebra were seen as the main pathological lesions. The cavity of the spinal canal was constricted by the distorted vertebral bodies. Resorption of bone tissue and sequestrum formation, signs of increased osteoclast activity, proliferation of fibrotic tissues, infiltration with heterophils and formation of sclerotic layers were detected in the vertebral bodies. From all 24 samples collected from the vertebral lesions, Enterococcus cecorum was isolated and identified using metabolic fingerprinting as well as 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Demonstration of E. cecorum from the vertebral lesions in all examined broiler breeder roosters showing the same clinical and pathological findings in different flocks suggested the pathogenic role of this microorganism for the first time in Hungary.
Ten one-day-old goslings were inoculated orally with a
strain isolated from the large intestine of geese that had died of intestinal spirochaetosis (Group A), 10 day-old goslings were inoculated orally with a
strain (Group B), and a third group of 10 goslings (Group C) served as uninfected control. The goslings were observed daily for clinical signs. They were sacrificed on days 7, 14, 21 and 35 days postinfection (PI), and necropsied. Segments of the large intestine were subjected to histopathological, immunohistochemical, electron microscopic (TEM, SEM) and microbiological examinations. Mortality did not occur during the experimental period. However, in both groups the caecum of the goslings killed by bleeding was slightly dilated, in its lumen there was a watery, yellowish and frothy content, and the mucous membrane was slightly swollen. By histopathological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic examination,
could be detected in the caecum or colon, in the lumen of the glands and sometimes among the glandular epithelial cells in goslings of the respective groups, and could be reisolated from these organs by culturing. A mild inflammation of the intestinal mucosa was also noted. In transverse section of the brachyspirae, numerous (16–22) periplasmic flagella could be detected inside the outer sheath, also depending on the plane of section.
The 2006 epidemic due to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 in Hungary caused the most severe losses in waterfowl which were, according to the literature at the time, supposed to be the most resistant to this pathogen. The presence of pathological lesions and the amount of viral antigen were quantified by gross pathology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the organs of four waterfowl species [mute swans (n = 10), domestic geese (n = 6), mulard ducks (n = 6) and Pekin ducks (n = 5)] collected during the epidemic. H5N1 subtype HPAIV was isolated from all birds examined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRRT-PCR) was also applied on a subset of samples [domestic geese (n = 3), mulard (n = 4) and Pekin duck (n = 4)] in order to compare its sensitivity with IHC. Viral antigen was detected by IHC in all cases. However, the overall presence of viral antigen in tissue samples was quite variable: virus antigen was present in 56/81 (69%) swan, 22/38 (58%) goose, 28/46 (61%) mulard duck and 5/43 (12%) Pekin duck tissue samples. HPAIV subtype H5N1 was detected by qRRT-PCR in all birds examined, in 19/19 (100%) goose, 7/28 (25%) mulard duck and 12/28 (43%) Pekin duck tissue samples. As compared to qRRTPCR, the IHC was less sensitive in geese and Pekin ducks but more sensitive in mulard ducks. The IHC was consistently positive above 4.31 log10 copies/reaction but it gave very variable results below that level. Neurotropism of the isolated virus strains was demonstrated by finding the largest amount of viral antigen and the highest average RNA load in the brain in all four waterfowl species examined.
Epidemiological, pathological, serological and virological investigations are reported on turkey haemorrhagic enteritis virus (THEV) infection in Hungarian turkey flocks. The pathogenesis of infection in experimentally infected turkeys and chickens, as well as the usefulness of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing method for epidemiological investigation and for the differentiation of vaccine and field strains of THEV was also studied. Since the first recognition of the disease in Hungary in the late 1970s, until recently the disease has been diagnosed sporadically in its mild form. In the last few years (2000–2005), however, the number of outbreaks and the severity of the disease increased (9–23 affected flocks/year). Most of the outbreaks occurred at the age of 6 to 8 weeks and was complicated with
infection. The antibody levels to THEV in turkey flocks gradually declined till 5–7 weeks of age, and then they increased sharply due to natural infection with THEV. The immune response to vaccination (at 5 weeks of age) showed no significant antibody level increase one week postvaccination, but four weeks later the antibody level reached high values and then remained at this high level. The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test to detect turkey adenovirus A (TAdV-A) antigen and PCR methods for THEV-specific DNA gave similarly positive results if spleens with pathognomonic lesions were tested; however, PCR proved to be more sensitive in cases with less characteristic pathological lesions. Nucleotide sequence alignment of PCR products amplified from Hungarian field strains and the Domermuth vaccine strain and that of the published THEV hexon sequences in GenBank database revealed slight differences between the sequences.