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  • Author or Editor: Éva Kaszanyitzky x
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The goal of this study was to improve the diagnostic applicability of genus- and serovar- (S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium) specific PCR systems in screening faecal and caecal samples of poultry, poultry feed and poultrymeat for Salmonella, by keeping the opportunity to obtain Salmonella cultures from positive samples. Peptone broth pre-enrichment cultures of the samples were tested by PCR. In faecal and caecal samples from broiler chicks a strong inhibitory action was frequently observed. This could be reduced markedly by the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) acting as amplification facilitator. The results of testing pre-enrichment cultures from artificially contaminated faecal, poultry feed and poultrymeat samples (using S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Hadar as contaminants) suggest that the sensitivity of the above systems is 101-102 CFU g-1 sample. The testing of 95 caecal samples from slaughtered chicks resulted in 49% culture-positive and 76% PCR-positive samples. The suitability of a generic real-time PCR for testing faecal samples of poultry was also studied. Its detection limit for these samples was found to be lower than that of the diagnostic PCR system. Both methods reduced the time required for Salmonella detection to 24-30 h, and the advantage of the real-time PCR was its increased sensitivity. We have established a diagnostic and a real-time PCR system for rapid and reliable genus- and serovar- (S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium) specific detection of Salmonella for monitoring purposes in the poultry food chain. Sensitivity is equal to, or higher than, that of the standard bacterial culture method, and the method still provides the Salmonella culture if needed.

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Because of the rapid development and spread of antimicrobial resistance it is important that a system be established to monitor antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic zoonotic and commensal bacteria of animal origin. Susceptibility testing of bacteria from carcasses and different samples of animal origin has been carried out in veterinary institutes for a long time but by an inconsistent methodology. The disc diffusion method proposed by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) was introduced in all institutes in 1997. In order to obtain a coherent view of the antimicrobial resistance of bacteria a computer system was consulted, consisting of a central computer to store all data and some local computers attached to it through the network. At these local measuring stations computers are connected to a video camera, which displays the picture of Petri dishes on the monitor, and inhibition zone diameters of bacteria can be drawn with the mouse by the inspector. The software measures the diameters, evaluates whether or not the bacteria are sensitive, and stores the data. The evaluation is based upon the data of the NCCLS. The central computer can be connected to as many local computers with measuring stations as we wish, so it is suitable for an integrated system for monitoring trends in antimicrobial resistance of bacteria from animals, food and humans, facilitating comparison of the occurrence of resistance for each circumstance in the chain. It depends on the examiners which antibiotics they want to examine. Thirty-two different antibiotic panels were compiled, taking into consideration the active ingredients of medicinal products permitted for veterinary use in Hungary, natural resistance and cross-resistance, the mechanism of resistance and the animal species, i.e. which drugs were recommended for treatment in the given animal species, and the recommendations of the OIE Expert Group on Antimicrobial Resistance. The members of the panels can be changed any time, even during the measuring process. In addition to the inhibition zone diameters of bacteria the database also includes information about bacterial and animal species, the age of animals and the sample or organ where the bacteria are from. Since January 2001 the antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Enterococcus strains isolated from the colons of slaughter cows, pigs and broiler chickens has also been examined. Each of the 19 counties of Hungary submits to the laboratory three tied colon samples from a herd of the above-mentioned animals every month.

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Based on data of the Hungarian resistance monitoring system the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus strains of human and animal origin was studied. No methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbouring mecA gene were isolated from animals in 2001. Penicillin resistance, mediated by penicillinase production, was the most frequent among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from humans (96%), from bovine mastitis (55%), from foods (45%) and from dogs. In staphylococci isolated from animals low resistance percentages to aminoglycosides (0-2%), fluoroquinolones (0.5-3%) and sulphonamides (0.5-4%) were found but in strains isolated humans these figures were higher (1-14%, 5-18% and 3-31%, respectively). The most frequent antibiotic resistance profiles of strains isolated from animals and food were penicillin/tetracycline, penicillin/lincomycin and penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline. Penicillin/tetracycline resistance was exhibited by strains from mastitis (3), samples from the meat industry (31), poultry flocks (1), poultry industry (1), noodle (1) and horses (2). Penicillin/lincomycin resistance was found in 10 Staphylococcus strains from mastitis, 1 from the dairy industry, 1 from the meat industry and 6 from dogs. Isolates from mastitis (2), from the dairy industry (2), from pigs (1), from the meat industry (1) and from poultry (1) harboured penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline resistance pattern. Multiresistant strains were usually isolated only from one and sometimes from two animal species; therefore, the spread of defined resistant strains (clones) among different animal species could not be demonstrated. These results also suggest that the transfer of antibiotic resistance of S. aureus from animals to humans probably occurs less frequently than is generally assumed.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Ákos Thuma, Ádám Dán, Éva Kaszanyitzky, Béla Fazekas, Ádám Tóth and Róbert Glávits

Two groups of one-day-old Peking ducklings (Groups I and II, 12 birds/group) were inoculated orally with Brachyspira pilosicoli and two groups with B. alvinipulli (Groups III and IV, 12 birds/group). T-2 toxin was added to the feed of Groups II and IV in a dose of 1 mg/kg of feed. Groups V and VI served as uninfected control groups (ducks of Group VI received T-2 toxin). The body weight gain of the ducks was measured and clinical signs were monitored continuously. The birds were sacrificed and necropsied on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 post infection (PI). The liver, spleen, kidney, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, ileum, caecum and colon were examined histologically. Culturing of Brachyspira spp. and immunohistochemistry were performed from the sampled parts of the intestines as well. No gross pathological or histological lesions that could be associated with B. pilosicoli or B. alvinipulli were detectable in the intestinal mucous membrane including the colonised intestinal glands. Mortality did not occur during the experimental period. Decrease in body weight gain was significant in the T-2-toxin-treated groups, and it was slight (not significant) in the Brachyspira-infected groups. Crust on the beaks, necrosis, crusting and ulceration in the mucous membrane of the oral cavity and on the skin of the feet, atrophy of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius due to the effect of T-2 toxin, accompanied by lymphocyte depletion, were observed. These lesions were most prominent on days 14 and 21 PI but were seen on day 28 PI as well. Immunohistochemical detection and reisolation of B. pilosicoli and B. alvinipulli were successful on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 days from different segments of the intestine of certain birds, but no significant difference was observed in the colonisation rate between the T-2-toxin-treated and the untreated groups.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Boglárka Sellyei, Zsuzsanna Varga, Katalin Szentesi-Samu, Éva Kaszanyitzky and Tibor Magyar

Pasteurella multocida causes infectious diseases in a wide range of animal species. Antimicrobial therapy is still an effective tool for treatment. Generally, P. multocida isolates are susceptible to most of the widely used commercial antimicrobial agents but their excessive and unjustified use accelerates the emergence of resistant strains. We defined the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of 56 P. multocida strains isolated from poultry (20) and swine [16 P. multocida toxin (PMT) positive and 20 PMT negative] to 16 widely applied antibiotics (apramycin, cefquinome, chloramphenicol, colistin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, neomycin, oxolinic acid, penicillin, trimethoprim potentiated sulphamethoxazole, sulphonamide compounds, tetracycline, tulathromycin) by the disk diffusion method. The majority of the strains was susceptible to most of the antimicrobial agents tested. However, the resistance to sulphonamides, tetracyclines, first-generation quinolones and aminoglycosides was remarkable, and thus the use of these compounds for the treatment of infection caused by P. multocida is not recommended. On the other hand, the antimicrobial activity of the classical penicillin, the newer macrolide (tulathromycin), the third-generation fluoroquinolone (enrofloxacin) and the fourth-generation cephalosporin (cefquinome) proved to be satisfactory against this bacterium.

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The presence of the vanA gene was determined in enterococci from healthy poultry, originating from the Hungarian resistance monitoring system between 2001 and 2004. Enterococci (n = 562) were collected from intestinal samples of slaughtered broiler chickens. The presence of van genes was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) strains carried only the vanA gene. Genus- and species-level identification of the vanA gene carrier strains was carried out by PCR using specific primers. In 2001, 25 out of the 289 isolated strains (8.6%) were vanA carriers (1 Enterococcus mundtii , 13 E. durans and 11 E. faecium ). In 2002 (n = 87), 20 (23%) strains were vanA positive (11 E. durans and 9 E. faecium ). In 2003 and 2004, none of the strains (n = 95 and 91, respectively) were positive for the most common van genes. In 2003, there was only one strain for which higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of vancomycin (4 mg/L) and teicoplanin (8 mg/L) were found. In 2004 there were three strains for which the MIC of vancomycin was 8 mg/L, and 2 strains and 1 strain with teicoplanin MICs of 4 mg/L and 8 mg/L, respectively. The potential similarity of these strains was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The VRE strains were not closely related to one another. The annual data of vancomycin resistance indicate an association between the recovery of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and the use of avoparcin in animal feeds. This study indicates that with the reduced use of antibiotics in food animals, it is possible to decrease the rate of resistant bacteria. Although the use of avoparcin had been banned in 1998, the VRE strains disappeared only five years later.

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In this report we examined the glycopeptide susceptibility of enterococci, isolated in 2005, from slaughtered animals, within the confines of Hungarian Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring System. We determined the presence of the van genes as well as their genetic relatedness in enterococci from poultry. Enterococcus sp. strains (n = 175) were collected from intestinal samples of slaughtered poultry in 2005. The origin of the samples was registered at county level. After screening the strains with 30 mg vancomycin disc 19 (86%) intermediate resistant and 4 (3%) fully resistant strains were found. The distribution of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)-values among 23 enterococcus strains which were intermediate or resistant to vancomycin were 0.25 mg/L (4.4%), 2 mg/L (8.6%), 4 mg/L (8.6%), 8 mg/L (61%), 16 mg/L (8.6%) and 256 mg/L (8.6%). The MICs of teicoplanin were 0.25 mg/L (4.3%), 1 (8.6%), 4 mg/L (78.3%), 16 mg/L (4.3%) and 256 mg/L (4.3%). The two most vancomycin-resistant strains were vanA carriers (1 E. faecalis and 1 E. faecium ).The farms that produced these strains can be reservoirs of VRE and the affected farms should change the technology of disinfection and breeding in order to prevent the emergence of high numbers of human VRE isolates in Hungary.

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The proportion of Escherichia coli non-susceptible to 3rd generation cephalosprins from invasive clinical samples has risen in Hungary from 5.1 per cent in 2006 to 15.5 per cent in 2011. The prevalence of ESBL-production in E. coli of animal origin remains unknown. During the first stage of a probe forty-five human and 18 animal ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated in 2006-2007 were investigated. The human strains were representatively selected from a collection of 113 ESBL-producing isolates sent to the national reference center from local laboratories across the country. A variety of ESBLs were detected (SHV-2, -5, -12, CTX-M-32) with CTX-M-15 being the most common in human and CTX-M-1 the dominant in animal isolates. Genetic characterization revealed that thirty-six human isolates (80 per cent) belonged to either the phylogenetic group (PG) B2 or D. Conversely, 15 animal isolates (83 per cent) proved to be members of the A and B1 commensal PGs. Furthermore 46 per cent of human isolates (21/45) from 12 centres belonged to the international O25-ST131/B2 clone while nine isolates from seven centers showed the O15 serotype. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) detected 22 and 11 diverse pulsotypes among 45 human and 18 animal isolates, respectively. The human and animal strains did not share any pulsotypes.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Éva Ivanics, M. Dobos-Kovács, R. Glávits, Éva Kaszanyitzky, Cs. Nemes, L. Szeredi, Anikó Beregszászi and L. Dencső

Ten one-day-old goslings were inoculated orally with a Brachyspira alvinipulli strain isolated from the large intestine of geese that had died of intestinal spirochaetosis (Group A), 10 day-old goslings were inoculated orally with a B. hyodysenteriae strain (Group B), and a third group of 10 goslings (Group C) served as uninfected control. The goslings were observed daily for clinical signs. They were sacrificed on days 7, 14, 21 and 35 days postinfection (PI), and necropsied. Segments of the large intestine were subjected to histopathological, immunohistochemical, electron microscopic (TEM, SEM) and microbiological examinations. Mortality did not occur during the experimental period. However, in both groups the caecum of the goslings killed by bleeding was slightly dilated, in its lumen there was a watery, yellowish and frothy content, and the mucous membrane was slightly swollen. By histopathological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic examination, B. alvinipulli and B. hyodysenteriae could be detected in the caecum or colon, in the lumen of the glands and sometimes among the glandular epithelial cells in goslings of the respective groups, and could be reisolated from these organs by culturing. A mild inflammation of the intestinal mucosa was also noted. In transverse section of the brachyspirae, numerous (16–22) periplasmic flagella could be detected inside the outer sheath, also depending on the plane of section.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Éva J. Kaszanyitzky, Zsuzsanna Egyed, Sz. Jánosi, Judit Keserű, Zsuzsanna Gál, I. Szabó, Zoltán Veres and P. Somogyi

The antibiotic resistance pattern of 1921 Staphylococcus strains isolated from animals and food within the last two years were examined using diffusion tests. Among them there were only 35 strains of S. aureus having an inhibition zone diameter of 15 mm or less, and 4 strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) having a zone diameter of 18 mm or less to 1-µg oxacillin disk. These 39 strains were examined also by E-test to oxacillin and for the detection of the mecA gene by PCR in order to determine whether they might be real methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Among the 39 strains there were only two that were susceptible to penicillin by disk diffusion method; however, further examination by the penicillinase test showed that they produced ß-lactamase. While 19 (15 S. aureus, 4 CNS) strains were resistant and 7 strains were intermediate to oxacillin in disk diffusion test, the E-test gave 8 resistant and 5 intermediate results. Six out of the 8 oxacillin-resistant strains examined by disk diffusion and E-test harboured the mecA gene. Thus only 6 out of the examined 1921 strains proved to be mecA positive. These methicillin-resistant, mecA-positive strains (5 of the S. aureus strains and 1 of the S. epidermidis) originated from two dairy herds. The results prove that methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains in animals are really rare in Hungary. Eighteen strains were chosen and screened for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of oxacillin with or without clavulanic acid or sulbactam, and three of them produced methicillinase enzyme.

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