Aging is associated with signs of sensory impairment and neurological symptoms. Advancing age is characterized by increased thresholds of thermal, tactile and vibratory sensations. One important cause of the sensory disturbances has been stated to be the loss of neurons. Decreases have been observed in the number of peripheral nerve fibers and in the number of neurons in the spinal ganglia of rats. In the present study, the cytoplasmic organelles of the neurons of the trigeminal ganglia were examined in young and senescent rats in order to reveal the cause of cell loss during aging. Mitochondrial alterations, swelling and loss of internal cristae were observed from 23 week of age in the B-type neurons of the trigeminal ganglia. Other cytoplasmic elements were intact. Mitochondrial damage was never seen in A-type neurons and satellite glial cells. It was concluded that the ultrastructural changes in the mitochondria of the B-type cells may contribute to the nervous disturbances that occur in senescent individuals. The diminution of mitochondrial damage and the protection of B-type neurons through the use of nerve growth factors may prevent the sensory impairment late in life.
Intestinal passage time of coloured fodder and testosterone turnover were examined by faecal steroid analysis in mallards in the reproductive and postrefractory period. In the latter, the discharge of coloured fodder began 36 minutes after ingestion in males, and 56 minutes in females. During reproduction the discharge began 93 minutes and 112 minutes after ingestion in males and females, respectively. Total passage time was similar in the reproductive and postrefractory period in both sexes. After intraperitoneal testosterone injection, faecal samples were collected for 8 hours and testosterone levels were measured using RIA. In the postrefractory period, 1-2 hours after testosterone loading a strong increase of faecal testosterone content developed in males, meanwhile a slighter testosterone peak appeared in females. During reproduction testosterone excretion began 1.5-2 hours after injection in both sexes but in females its increase was smaller. The duration of response to testosterone loading was 5 hours in both periods and both sexes. Intensive excretion after T loading appeared earlier in males than in females, but total passage time finished at the same time: 5 hours after loading. The character of testosterone excretion was corresponding to the passage of fodder-chimus-faeces in the reproductive and postrefractory period in both sexes.
Since early fertility decline is a permanent problem of broiler breeders, the aim of this study was to test the effects of various sex ratios, spiking strategies and additional artificial inseminations (AI) on their breeding efficiency. Six breeder flocks were analysed during the whole reproduction cycle. In Flock A the sex ratio was maintained at 10% during the whole cycle (control), while in Flock B the number of males was increased to a final ratio of 16%. In Flocks C (technological control), D, E and F the ratio of males was gradually decreased from 10% to 6.5% until the end of the cycle. Moreover, at the age of 44 weeks in Flocks D and E 50 and 100% of cockerels were replaced by young ones, respectively, while in Flock F additional artificial inseminations were applied in the second half of the reproduction cycle. The increase of sperm transport was successful only in Groups B (increase in male numbers) and D (50% replacement of old cockerels with young ones); however, it was not sufficient for increasing the fertility rates in either group. Nor did additional artificial inseminations (Flock F) have an effect on fertility. As a conclusion, it can be established that increasing the sperm count in the hens’ oviducts in any way could not improve fertility in the last third of the production cycle. The results also suggest that the expensive and labour-intensive spiking technique used in broiler breeder management is useless. The prime factor responsible for the shortened persistence of fertility may be the reduced ability of the female oviduct to accept and store sperm.
Effects of capsaicin on voltage-gated currents were examinedin vitro by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from small neurones of rat trigeminal ganglia either in slice preparations or in different cell cultures. Cells were classified as sensitive to capsaicin if they responded with inward current and/or conductance change to the agent in nanomolar concentration. Capsaicin (150 to 330 nM) in sensitive cells reduced the mixed inward current evoked by depolarizing step or ramp commands in all preparations. In cultured cells, the inward current was depressed to 32.78±26.42% (n = 27) of the control. Both the tetrodotoxin-sensitive and -resistant inward currents were affected. The data support the concept that capsaicin besides acting on VR-1 receptors inhibits also some voltage gated channels. In 34 cultured cells, capsaicin increased the slope conductance to 170.5±68%. Percentage of capsaicin sensitive cells observed in nerve growth factor-treated cultured cell populations was higher (77.8%) than in the two other preparations (14.3 or 38.8%). It is concluded that 1) depression of the voltage-gated currents may play an important role in the functional desensitization of the sensory receptors and in the analgesic effect induced by the agent and 2) cell body of sensory neurones under native condition seems less sensitive to capsaicin then that of cells cultured in the presence of nerve growth factor.
The isolation and characterization of antibacterial chamomile components were performed by the use of direct bioautography and solid phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). Four ingredients, active against Vibrio fischeri, were identified as the polyacetylene geometric isomers cisand trans-spiroethers, the coumarin related herniarin, and the sesquiterpene alcohol (−)-alpha-bisabolol.
Bioassay-guided isolation of antibacterial components of chamomile flower methanol extract was performed by overpressured layer chromatography (OPLC) with on-line detection, fractionation combined with sample clean-up in-situ in the adsorbent bed after off-line sample application. The antibacterial effect of the eluted fractions and of those compounds remaining on the adsorbent layer after separation was tested with direct bioautography (DB) against the bioluminescent Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. maculicola and Vibrio fischeri. The fractions with high biological activity were analyzed by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Two active uneluted compounds were characterized by off-line OPLC-MS using a thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-MS interface. Mainly, essential oil components, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids were identified in the active fractions.
In this study, we report on the production of bulb scale-derived tissue cultures capable of efficient shoot and plant regeneration in three genotypes of snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis L., Amaryllidaceae), a protected ornamental plant. For culture line A, high auxin and low cytokinin concentration is required for callus production and plant regeneration. The type of auxin is of key importance: α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at concentrations of 2 mg L−1 or 2–10 mg L−1 NAA with 1 mg L−1 N6-benzyladenine (BA), a cytokinin on full-strength media are required for regeneration. Cultures showing regeneration were embryogenic. When lines B and C were induced and maintained with 2 mg L−1 NAA and 1 mg L−1 BA, they produced mature bulblets with shoots, without roots. Line A produced immature bulblets with shoots under the above culture condition. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that (i) genetic differences between line A and its bulb explants were not significant, therefore these tissue cultures are suitable for germplasm preservation, and (ii) different morphogenetic responses of lines A, B and C originated from genetic differences. Culture line A is suitable for field-growing, cultivation and germplasm preservation of G. nivalis and for the production of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids.