Total white blood cell (WBC) counts and percentages of CD4a+, CD8a+, CD5a+, CD45RA+, CD45RC+, wCD21+ and SWC3a+ cells in the peripheral blood of pigs were analysed in this study. Blood samples were collected before and on days 4, 10, 21 and 28 after vaccination. Group 1 pigs were vaccinated with a subunit E2 vaccine (gp E2 32 µg/dose), and Group 2 received a subunit vaccine combined with an attenuated ORF virus strain D1701 106.45 TCID50/dose. Control pigs received a placebo. The total WBC count and percentage of particular cell types were within the normal range in vaccinated and control pigs. Although the mechanism of attenuated ORF virus activity is not clear, changes were observed in CD4a+, CD5a+, CD8a+, CD45RA+ and CD45RC+cells in pigs that received the combination of a subunit vaccine and ORF virus. However, the percentage of wCD21+ and SWC3a+ did not differ significantly from that recorded in pigs given only the subunit vaccine. At days 4 and 10 the number of pigs positive to E2 antibodies was higher in the group that received the subunit vaccine and ORF virus than in pigs vaccinated with the subunit vaccine only. A higher percentage of memory cells (CD45RC+) as well as Th and Tc lymphocytes in pigs that received the ORF virus and the subunit vaccine could be ascribed to a nonspecific influence of the ORF virus on the development (through cognate interactions between T and B cells) and the duration (presumed according to the finding of the clonal expression of memory cells) of humoral immunity (assessed by a higher number of seropositive pigs in this group). This seems likely since the proportion of these cells was found to be lower in the pigs that received E2 vaccine only.
During a five-year period (2000 to 2004) 74,342 pigs were tested by the intradermal tuberculin test in Croatia. Of them, 248 (0.33%) pigs were positive and 91 (0.12%) were found to be suspicious in 7 out of the 13 farms included in the study. Gross pathological changes characteristic of tuberculosis were observed in tuberculin-positive and/or suspicious swine. Mycobacterium was isolated from the lymph nodes of 183 out of 234 swine (78.2%). For better epidemiological understanding, isolates were typed by conventional methods, PCR and hybridisation. The results show that most of the isolates belonged to the
complex (175 isolates, 95.7%). Other isolates belonged to
(6 isolates, 3.3%),
(1 isolate, 0.5%), and
(1 isolate, 0.5%). Isolated strains of the
complex were identified as
M. a. avium
(37 isolates, 21.1%) and
M. a. hominissuis
(138 isolates, 78.9%).
This work presents the results of findings for brucellosis in wild boars and domestic swine in two regions of Croatia. In the region of Djakovo the blood samples of 211 wild boars were analysed and in 29.4% of the samples serologically positive reactions were established. In the same region the blood samples of 1080 domestic swine on pastures were also analysed and positive serological reactions were established in 12.3%. In the regions around Lonjsko Polje the blood samples of 53 wild boars were analysed and in 22.6% of them positive serological reactions were established. On several locations around Lonjsko Polje the blood samples of 901 domestic swine were serologically analysed and 13.5% of the swine were found to be seropositive. Bacteriological analyses of submitted materials from 24 wild boars resulted in isolation of Brucella from seven (29.2%) samples, and from 43 samples originating from domestic swine that had aborted and had been serologically positive, Brucella were isolated from 25 (58.1%) swine, as well as from 10 (62.5%) out of 16 aborted piglets. In all the isolates Brucellasuis biovar 2 was identified. Wild boars are carriers and reservoirs of Brucellasuis biovar 2 in Croatia.