This article tries to give a short survay about the reception of Dostoevsky in Hungary between 1920–1944. There is a special group of the Hungarian interpretators of the Russian writer in this period, namely three protestant theologians—Béla Varga, Kálmán Újszászy, László Vatai—whose works show very important interferences of ideas, appearing in existentialism (by Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Jaspers, Berdjajev), in the contemporary protestant theology (Karl Barth, Eduard Thurneysen) and in the Bakhtin’s conception of the dialogue and the „postupok” i.e. act. These spiritual connections take their origin from the common European philosophy: it is interesting to follow, how reflect the new concepts in the different Dostojevskij’ interpretations.
The young Gogol published a study on the teaching of geography for children in 1831. At the same time, he was writing the collection of short stories,
Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka
(1831–1832). We can observe interesting connections between his texts – prose fictions and pedagogical writing – of this period: motives belonging to geography, history and folklore make a specifically large context. The author’s interest in geology, as he writes, in the „underground geography” (“подземная география”) – the earth’s crust, rocks, strata – corresponds with the “underground mythology and folklore” in the
stories, with the demonic figures (
колдун, ведьма, черт
), places (
abyss, ravine, depths of the earth, swamp, churchyard
) and time (
). In this study, on the basis of the Gogol’s long-time unedited manuscripts (
, ed. by I. A. Vinogradov, Moscow, 2001) we investigate the common roots of the seemingly heterogeneous motives to discover the hidden strata and meanings of his early works.