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This paper is intented to analyze the lexical and semantic Polonisms identified in “The Translator’s Explication” and “The Preface to the Reader”, which precede the text of the Psalter 1683 in the translation of A. Firsov. The publication deals with 29 lexemes, with 18 of them being lexical borrowings. In two cases, they are not direct borrowings (cf. ƨлупый and читатель), but, most probably, are the result of the stimulating influence of the Polish language. According to the author, 11 words under analysis can be called semantic Polonisms. The paper also defines the role of the written language of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the process of the borrowing of these lexical elements. On the basis of the results of the analysis of the corpus, the author also touches upon the question of the translator’s personality, which has remained debatable up to the present day.

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The article examines the origin of the following words found in the diplomatic correspondence of Muscovite Russia of the 17th century: взглядъ ‘point of view; standpoint; opinion; appraisal’ (мѣ ти взглядъ ‘consider, take into consideration’), выполняти ‘implement, fulfil, carry out‘, высвобожати ‘free, liberate’, дал(ь)ший ‘further, subsequent’, доведенье ‘argument; proving, proof, substantiation’, догажати, догодити ‘please; oblige; play up to’, додавати ‘add to, give’, доложити ‘add to; supplement with’, and допомогати ‘help, assist, aid’. The paper retraces their further fate in Russian and other East Slavonic languages as well as in the Polish language. The author aims at proving that these intra-Slavonic derivates are inter-Slavonic lexical loanwords (Polonisms) in the Russian language. It is also stated that the word высвобожати probably is a loanword from the written language of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Russian written language of the 17th century.

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Studia Slavica
Author:
Людмила Гарбуль

Данная статья посвящена проблематике сложных межславянских языковых контактов в XVII в. и продолжает цикл публикаций автора на эту тему. Исследование опирается на историко-филологи-ческие методы, которые помогают установить направление языкового влияния при контактирова-нии генетически родственных языков. Успешному применению указанных методов способствует использование данных исторических словарей восточнославянских и западнославянских языков с большой глубиной диахронии и широким кругом памятников письменности разных жанров и различного происхождения. Эта информация помогает выявлять межславянские заимствования и верифицировать результаты предшествующих исследований.

В публикации на материале дипломатической корреспонденции Московского государства рас-сматривается происхождение и история четырех лексем: навезенье ‘пребывание в неволе, в плену, в заключении’, надарити / надарыти ‘одарить, наделить чем-л.; подарить что-л.’, новокрещенецъ / но-вокщенецъ ‘тот, кто недавно крестился, принял христианство; лицо, перешедшее в христианство из другого вероисповедания’, новообранный ‘вновь избранный, новоизбранный’ во всех контактиро-вавших языках: русском, польском, письменности Великого княжества Литовского, а также белорус-ском и украинском языках. Цель автора – доказать, что эти слова являются лексическими заимство-ваниями из польского языка. Исследование основано на тщательном сопоставлении данных разного типа словарей русского, белорусского, украинского и польского языков, что позволило доказать неисконность рассматриваемых лексем в русском языке и установить источник заимствования, а также выявить посредническую роль письменности ВКЛ в польско-русских языковых контактах.

В результате анализа материала было установлено, что все четыре лексемы, вероятнее всего, яв-ляются полонизмами, при этом слова надарити / надарыти, новокрещенецъ / новокщенецъ и ново-обранный проникли в русский письменный язык XVII в., по-видимому, благодаря посредничеству письменности ВКЛ. Кроме того, для лексемы надарити / надарыти была конкретизирована хро-нологическая характеристика, а для слова новообранный удревнено время появления его в русском письменном языке.

Материалы данной публикации могут быть использованы для дополнения и уточнения информа-ции этимологических и исторических словарей славянских языков.

This paper is devoted to the problems of complex inter-Slavic language contacts in the 17th century and continues the author’s cycle of publications on this topic. The study is based on historical and philological methods that help to establish the direction of language influence when genetically related languages contact. The successful application of these methods is facilitated by the use of historical dictionaries of the West Slavic and East Slavic languages with a great depth of diachrony and a wide range of written monuments of different genres and various origins. This information helps to identify inter-Slavic language borrowings and verify the results of previous studies.

The paper examines the origin and history of four words found in the Muscovite diplomatic correspondence: navezenie ‘captivity, imprisonment’, nadariti / nadaryti ‘to give, to bestow’, novokreščeniec ‘neophyte; Anabaptist’, novoobrannyj ‘newly elected’ in all contacting languages: Russian, Polish, the written language of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as well as Belarusian and Ukrainian. The author aims at proving that these words are lexical borrowings from the Polish language. The study is based on a careful comparison of data of various types of dictionaries of the Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, and Polish languages, which made it possible to prove the foreign origin of these tokens in the Russian language and to establish the source of borrowings as well as to identify the intermediary role of the written language of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in Polish–Russian language contacts.

As a result of the study, it was found that all four lexemes are Polonisms. It was also established that the words nadariti / nadaryti, novokreščeniec, and novoobrannyj were introduced to the Russian written language of the 17th century, most likely due to the mediation of the written language of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In addition, the time of appearance of the word nadariti / nadaryti in the Russian written language was specified, and an earlier chronology was established for the word novoobrannyj.

The materials in this publication can be used to supplement and clarify the information of the etymological and historical dictionaries of the Slavic languages.

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The paper deals with the twofold role of the written language of the Great Duchy of Lithuania in inter-Slavonic, mainly Polish–Russian language contacts, based on the material of diplomatic correspondence of Muscovy. The author summarizes the research data proving that the written language of the Great Duchy of Lithuania played the role of an active mediator in the 15th–17th centuries in Polish–Russian language contacts and it was a source of lexical and semantic borrowings in the Russian written language and in the Polish written language. What is more, the paper examines anew some lexical borrowings from the written language of the Great Duchy of Lithuania in the Russian Chancery language of the 17th century as well as in the Polish language: golosovati / galasovati ‘cry, make a noise; make a hubbub’, navyklyj ‘accustomed to, habitual’ and futor / chutor ‘small settlement; khutor (separated farm)’.

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