Among the recent archaeological finds in Tuyuq are several Old Uighur texts
related to Tantric practices in the cave monasteries in the Mongol time. A
fragment from Cave 24 preserves an unidentified text related to the Mahākāla
rites, which has not been attested before. A fragment from Cave 54 provides us a
new kind of manuscript of the Baxšï Ögdisi, which is different
from the previously identified manuscripts from Dunhuang and Turfan. Another
fragment from Cave 57 preserves a list of dates that can be identified as the
days on which the lamp-lighting ceremony influenced by Chinese tantric Buddhism
should have been held. Three wooden tablets with Uighur texts probably belong to
guest monks or donors. These materials provide precious new information on the
ritual and daily life of the Uighur Buddhist community in Tuyuq.
The excavation in Tuyuq Grottoes initiated in 2010 has brought about numerous archaeological ﬁnds. In particular, those discovered in Cave 26 on the high platform in the middle of the Western Section are noteworthy. Many wall inscriptions in Old Uighur, as well as Brahmi and Chinese are preserved in the side rooms, releasing important information on the dating and the nature of this cave. They also contribute new data to the ﬁelds of history and linguistics. This paper presents an edition and study of all the 29 inscriptions preserved in Room B, most of which are written in Old Uighur, while others in Chinese.