Individual differences in human sleep EEG spindling were shown to be associated with psychometric measures of cognitive ability. Previous results revealed a frequency-and region specificity of this effect, suggesting that only fast, but not slow spindle-related oscillatory activity over the frontal region correlated with cognitive performance. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that region-specific spindle-type oscillatory activity is related to specific cognitive abilities reflecting the cortical localization of the corresponding cognitive function. The visuospatial abilities are the focus of the present report. Nineteen healthy volunteers were tested with the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) test and memory performances correlated with the spindle analysis of the second night’s polysomnographic recordings. Correlations were age-corrected and subjected to descriptive data analysis. ROCF recall performances at 3 and 30 minutes delay, correlated positively and significantly with fast sleep spindle density measured over the right parietal area. No significant relationship between recognition performance and sleep EEG variables emerged. Slow spindle density did not correlate with test performances. Our findings converge with other data suggesting the involvement of right parietal functioning in visuospatial abilities. Moreover, these results support the hypothesis that region-specific differences in fast sleep spindling could be markers of specific neuropsychological performances.
Authors:K. Lázár, A. Chandwadkar, P. Fejes, J. Čejka, and A. Ramaswamy
Valency changes of iron and tin in framework-substituted microporous and mesoporous molecular sieves (Fe-ETS-10, Fe-ZSM-5, Fe-AlPO-11, Sn-ZSM-12 and Sn-MCM-41) have been studied under reducing and oxidizing conditions by in situ Mössbauer spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the structure of the host matrices strongly influences the stabilization and the oxidation state of the ions. Debye temperature,
D, data also are estimated, they support the suggested structural assignment of various species.
Suprapubic bladder aspiration is an invasive procedure in which a needle is used to obtain a urine sample directly from the bladder. Its advantages are sensitivity (detection of significant bacteriuria is close to 100%), suitability for cultivation of anaerobic bacteria, and low risk of contamination. Our purpose was to characterize the microbiology and epidemiology of urine samples obtained through this procedure in the Clinical Center of the University of Szeged’s Institute of Clinical Microbiology between 2008 and 2017.
Materials and methods
Over the 10-year period, patient data were collected and suprapubic bladder aspirations were performed, and the samples are processed in accordance with routine laboratory procedures in clinical bacteriology.
Of 187 urine samples obtained from 148 patients, 32.6% (n = 61) were culture-positive (defined as 102 colony forming units/ml or more).
This method should be considered an important sampling procedure in the differential diagnostics of upper urinary tract infections, particularly in children <2 years of age, and in older people, hospitalized patients.
Authors:Hajnalka Ábrahám, A. Losonczy, G. Czéh, and Gy. Lázár
The effect of potassium channel blockers tetraethylammonium and 4-aminopyridine was examined on the elevated K+ concentration-induced microglial activation on rat hippocampal slice preparations. Microglial cells were detected by immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antibody (OX 42) raised against a type 3 complement receptor. During activation the morphology of the microglial cells changes and the staining intensity increases. The degree of microglial activation was determined by measuring the integrated optical density of the cells. Tetraethylammonium and 4-aminopyridine failed to reduce the elevated K+ concentration-induced microglial activation. Both potassium channel blockers, when applied on the hippocampal slices without K+, caused significantly increased microglial activation as compared to the control slices. In order to check whether the functional alteration of the neuronal population induced by 4-aminopyridine caused the activation of the microglial cells, Schaffer collaterals were cut to block spreading of epileptiform hyperactivity of the CA3 pyramidal cells to the CA1 region. No significant differences were found in microglial activation between the CA3 and CA1 regions, indicating that the effect of 4-aminopyridine on microglial cells is independent of the epileptiform activity caused by the drug.
Authors:Bernadett Borda, Cs. Lengyel, T. Várkonyi, É. Kemény, A. Ottlakán, A. Kubik, Cs. Keresztes, and Gy. Lázár
New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is one of the frequent complications following kidney transplantation. Patients were randomized to receive cyclosporine A- or tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Fasting and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed, and the patients were assigned to one of the following three groups based on the results: normal, impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance (IFG/IGT), or NODAT. NODAT developed in 14% of patients receiving cyclosporine A-based immunosuppression and in 26% of patients taking tacrolimus (p = 0.0002). Albumin levels were similar, but uric acid level (p = 0.002) and the age of the recipient (p = 0.003) were significantly different comparing the diabetic and the normal groups. Evaluation of tissue samples revealed that acute cellular rejection (ACR) and interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IF/TA) were significantly different in the NODAT group. The pathological effect of new-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation can be detected in the morphology of the renal allograft earlier, before the development of any sign of functional impairment.
Authors:K. Lázár, A. M.-Szeleczky, G. Vorbeck, R. Fricke, A. Vondrova, and J. Cejka
Ferrisilicates of MFI structure (HZSM-5) with Si/Fe ratios of 27.5, 35 and 67 have been studied by in situ Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the results are correlated with studies on catalytic conversions of toluene. Various species of iron ions are identified from 300 K spectra recorded after combinations of evacuation and reduction at 570 and 670 K, respectively. The roles of identified species are suggested in catalytic processes.
Authors:I. Lázár, E. Tóth, G. J. Köteles, E. Puhó, and A. E. Czeizel
The associations between cancer mortality and median radon levels were examined in 34 Hungarian small villages (with population less than 5000) during the 1984-2000 period. The yearly averages of radon activity concentrations were measured in more than 70 homes in totally 5,081 houses in each village. There were no significant differences in the age distribution and the cancer mortality rate between the studied villages and all Hungarian villages with less than 5000 inhabitants. A previous cohort study in two neighboring villages in Hungary revealed a lower cancer incidence rate among women aged 30-64 in medium radon level (110-185 Bq . m-3). The aim of this study was checking the results of the previous study. Cancer mortality rate was examined in two groups: below and above the median value (110 Bq . m-3) of radon level. The lower or higher radon levels of homes do not result in significant differences concerning cancer mortality rate of males. However, the middle-aged group (30-64 years) of women had more lethal cancer cases in the lower radon level groups (59-109 Bq . m-3) than in the higher ones (110-226 Bq . m-3), the relative cancer risk was 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.6).
Authors:David Tarnoki, A.D. Tarnoki, Zs. Lazar, Cs. Korom, V. Berczi, I. Horvath, and K. Karlinger
Genetic effects that contribute to the risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been reported. Our purpose was to estimate the possible genetic influence on CT features related to COPD in twins.
Authors:B Borda, T Németh, A Ottlakan, C Keresztes, É Kemény, and G Lázár
Despite an increase in the number of cadaver donors and overall organ transplantations, the dramatic increase in the waiting list makes it necessary to reconsider donor criteria. The authors wanted to examine whether differences could exist in the function and/or morphology of transplanted kidneys originated from expanded criteria donors (ECDs) and ideal donors 1 and 5 years after transplantation.
Kidney function and histopathologic findings were analyzed and compared 1 and 5 years after transplantation in 97 patients having ECD kidneys and in 178 patients who received ideal donor kidneys (IDK).
Serum creatinine level was significantly higher (p = 0.001) and estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly lower (p = 0.003) in patients having ECD kidneys as compared with those with IDK 5 years after transplantation. Morphological changes in the transplanted kidneys, such as tubulitis (p = 0.025) and interstitial inflammation (p = 0.002), were significantly more frequently present in patients with ECD kidneys than in those with IDK 1 year after transplantation.
Despite an absence of differences in kidney function 1 year after kidney transplantation between patients having ECD and IDK, morphological differences in the transplanted kidneys can be detected between the two groups of patients.