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Lake Balaton is located in the Pannonian Basin, Hungary (46°50′ N, 17°50′ E), and is characterized by its large area (594 km 2 ) and very shallow water depth (avg. 3.5 meters). The main tributary is the Zala River, which enters the western bay, and the only outlet is the Sió River in the East.Sámuel Krieger conducted the first known survey focusing on Lake Balaton in 1776. The original purpose of Sámuel Krieger’s work was to illustrate his plans of draining and canalizing Lake Balaton. This map indicates several proposed canals and bathymetric contour lines according to a water level drop of 1, 2, or 3.33 Viennese fathoms (1 Viennese fathom = 1.89 meters). The map also shows settlements, land use and relief. Krieger measured water input from tributaries, documented the water level fluctuations of the lake, and summed his results in the “Descriptio”, a document with several tables of data and a written description of Lake Balaton, the Sió River, and the possible benefits of his plan of draining the lake.Almost 90 years later, the water level was lowered by approximately 1 meter in 1863, cutting off large marsh areas from the water system of the lake. The first bathymetric map was surveyed in 1895 after the lake was partially drained. The bathymetric survey was carried out with the purpose of estimating the water volume held by the lake. Understanding water balance was important for flood control after the Sió Canal and lock was built in 1863. Water depth was measured in 2884 points, along sections near the shore, and scattered points in areas of low relief. Depth was measured with a sounding line or pole. Horizontal positions were measured optically from military triangulation points, and elevations were leveled from a network of benchmarks placed for this survey. Distances were measured in fathoms but elevations were measured in meters for better accuracy. Reprojection of the scanned map was possible, but we had to correct minor errors by triangulation. Surviving benchmarks, depicted buildings and railway bridges were used as control points. The resulting map was used to create a Digital Elevation Model of the lake floor for investigating sedimentation processes.

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Hallstattzeitlicher Tonaltar aus Vát

Angaben zu den „KultgegenstÄnden“ der Osthallstattkultur

Authors: A. Molnár and Cs. Farkas

Hallstatt period clay altar from Vát. Data on the cultic objects of the Eastern Hallstatt culture . A unique object was discovered during the excavation of a settlement of the Hallstatt culture at the Vát, Bodon-tábla site (Vas county, Hungary). The find, which the authors have interpreted as a “clay altar“, is in many respects similar to the firedogs of the Kalenderberg culture, yet it is different both in its size and ornamentation. The only real analogue to the object came from Styria, although clay objects that can be interpreted as altars can be found on the entire territory of the Eastern Hallstatt culture. Beside other similar altar fragments, the decorated baking surface of an oven was also found at the Vát site. The structure of the uncovered houses also attests to the uniqueness of the site.

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One way of incorporating useful traits from Aegilops biuncialis (2n=4x=28, U b U b M b M b ) into wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. 2n=6x=42, AABBDD) is to develop first addition then translocation lines. The 2M b , 3M b , 7M b , 3U b , 5U b and 5U b /6U b wheat- Ae. biuncialis addition lines were produced in Martonvásár. To facilitate the exact identification of the addition lines, it was necessary to analyse the fluorescence in situ hybridisation patterns of the parental wheat genotype, Ae. biuncialis and its diploid progenitors ( Ae. umbellulata 2n=2x=14, UU and Ae. comosa 2n=2x=14, MM). The great genetic variability of the Aegilops species causes polymorphism in the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) patterns of the individual chromosomes. Due to the high level of FISH polymorphism, it is advisable to confirm the identification of the Ae. biuncialis chromosomes with the help of molecular (microsatellite, SSR) markers, so 119 wheat SSR markers were tested on Aegilops biuncialis , on Ae. geniculata (2n=4x=28, U g U g M g M g ), on five wheat- Ae. biuncialis addition lines (2M b , 3M b , 7M b , 3U b , 5U b ) and on an addition series of wheat- Ae. geniculata in order to select SSR markers specific to the U and M genomes of Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata .

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Several molecular markers have been reported for the detection of the 1RS chromosome arm. The aim of the present experiments was to study the reliability and reproducibility of six molecular markers specific to the 1RS rye chromosome (GPI, Bmac213, 5S, IAG95, SCM9 and RMS13) in distinguishing between wheat genotypes with and without the 1BL.1RS or 1AL.1RS translocations. In the course of the analysis, PCR products of the expected size were obtained with all the markers, which were found to give a reliable indication of the presence of the 1RS chromosome arm in the wheat genome.

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Six different 1RS-specific molecular markers (RMS13, Bmac213, GPI, 5S, SCM9, IAG95) were tested in twenty rye cultivars of various origin. The aim of the experiments was to choose rye cultivars which give polymorphic PCR products with these 1RS-specific markers compared to the wheat cultivar Mv Magdaléna, which contains the 1BL.1RS translocation. The polymorphic rye cultivars can be presumed to differ from the 1BL.1RS translocation originating from the Petkus rye cultivar and will hopefully carry effective resistance genes which can be incorporated into the 1BL.1RS translocation in wheat. Twenty rye cultivars (at least two plants per cultivar) were analysed with these markers. Of fifty-two rye samples analysed, three plants were found to be polymorphic, one (Kisvárdai Alacsony from Hungary), for the 5S marker, one (Kriszta from Hungary) for the RMS13 marker and one (Porto from Portugal) for the SCM9 marker. The polymorphic plants were grown to maturity in the phytotron.

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In 1933, Hungary passed landmark legislation that allowed the establishment of minority self-governments for all recognized minority groups within Hungary. Written to protect minority culture and provide a forum for minority interests, this legislation has arguably had the most profound implications for the Roma/Gypsy minority in Hungary. The Roma, comprising approximately 5 per cent of the total population, from not only the largest minority group, but also have historically remained the most politically and socio-economically marginalized. Can this new institution enhance the possibility that the Roma may freely preserve their cultural heritage and traditions while becoming full members of Hungarian society, with equal dignity and social opportunity? We use data from a nation-wide survey of Roma leaders, as well as interviews and ethnographic information from local case studies to determine the activities of Roma local minority self-governments, and how these activities affect Roma communities and local inter-ethnic relations. We find that while the system was created to protect and preserve minority cultural autonomy, Roma self-governments are instead predominantly acting as local social lobbies, motivated by their community's pressing social needs currently unmet by the local and state authorities. This leads to the conflation of the ethnic and social dimensions of local problems, strengthening social exclusion and reinforcing the perception that Roma impoverishment is a 'natural' condition.

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Purpose

The aim of this study is to present a situation assessment within the framework of a comprehensive study of the social services for people with mental illness in Hungary. After setting the historical background, we describe in detail the current services, their anomalies, and the ongoing implementation of a strategy to deinstitutionalize them.

Materials and methods

We reviewed the related academic literature and systematically collected and elaborated upon legal documents, decisions, and data from national databases.

Results

We established that a paradigm shift is taking place in the social care of people with mental disorders in Hungary. The lack of human resources, the paternalistic, institution-centered attitude, the mass supply of social services in dilapidated buildings, and the stigmatization of patients are among the greatest problems. Cooperation between the health and social sectors is inadequate and, in the interests of patients, needs to be improved.

Conclusions

Hungary needs a complex, integrated, health-and-social-care supply system for people living with mental illness, one that takes into account both personal needs and assistance to recovery. In the continuation of the deinstitutionalization process, emphasis should be placed on social sensitization.

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This study was based on the production of an alcoholic beverage from apple using laboratory pervaporation equipment. Hungarian fruit brandy is called pálinka, which can be made by pot distiller or multistage distiller made of copper. In case of traditional pot still distillation the final product is gained from two separate distillations. Pervaporation is an energy efficient membrane process for separating liquid mixtures. Application of pervaporation to separate the product of the initial distillation leads to lower energy consumption than using double-distillation process. The aim of our work was to develop an alternative technology for the production of pálinka that integrates distillation and pervaporation.

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Authors: A. Florian, L. Hárs and J. Molnár
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Gábor Fekete academician respectfully but affectionately called ‘Master’ (“Tanár Úr” in Hungarian, a version of ‘Professor’ that we used with a specific meaning of being not only a Tutor but Father and Master as well) by generations of vegetation scientists passed away on the 29th November 2016. His death deprived us of an experienced and didactic teacher who was loved by all. This warm regard was expressed in many commemorating writings published since his death. The present paper mainly concentrates on his scholarly work and the importance of his scientific findings also showing how particular publications signify stages in his scientific career.

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