European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) is widespread in Europe. The disease, which is on the increase in Hungary, causes losses in yield, deterioration in fruit quality, decrease in the lifespan of fruit bearing trees and finally the death of the plant affected. It is most probably the leafhoppers and psyllids that play a role in the spread of the disease. In Hungary, the species composition of leafhoppers in apricot orchards had not been known before our research was carried out. In order to search for the potential vectors of the disease, research was undertaken to identify the leafhopper species present in the orchard along with their population changes. Samplings and checks were taken periodically in a pesticide-treated apricot orchard infected with ESFY in Pomáz, during the whole vegetation period of 2001. Various collecting methods were used for monitoring the species. Samples were obtained from the canopy, the undergrowth and the plants adjacent to the orchard by the means of Malaise traps, suction traps and yellow sticky boards. 3117 individuals belonging to 85 leafhopper species were collected during our samplings. A species (Edwardsiana sp.) presumably new to the fauna was also collected, although research is still underway to remove all doubts about its identification. The leafhoppers were present throughout the vegetation period. A significant increase in the number of Edwardsiana lamellaris, E. rosae and of Eupteryx calcarata was detected between the end of May and the beginning of June, whereas in the middle of August, at the end of September and in mid-October an increase in the number of Empoasca solani, E. decipiens and Zygina flammigera was observed. On the basis of the abundance of the species as well as that of the study of the canopy it can be stated that apricot trees are among the host-plants of Edwardsiana lamellaris, E. rosae and Eupteryx calcarata. Our objectives for further studies are to assess the role in ESFY transmission of the leafhopper species collected.
Species richness and composition of
cicada (Auchenorrhyncha) assemblages were investigated in apple and pear
orchards subject to different pesticide management intensities (conventional
commercial orchards with a full spray programme of fungicides and broad-spectrum
insecticides, Integrated Pest Management, organic and abandoned orchards) in
Hungary in 1999, 2000 and 2001. Sampling was done with Malaise traps, by sweep
netting and beating nets in ten apple and three pear orchards in seven
different regions of Hungary. Altogether 15 686 individuals were collected in
the orchards investigated, belonging to 114 species, representing 20% of the
cicada fauna of Hungary. The most common species, in decreasing order of
relative abundance, were: Eupteryx atropunctata (Goeze), Empoasca solani
(Curtis), Edwardsiana crataegi (Douglas), Kybos virgator (Ribaut), Empoasca
decipiens Paoli, Zyginidia pullula (Boheman), Eupteryx calcarata Ossiannilsson,
Kybos populi (Edwards), Psammotettix alienus (Dahlbom), Laodelphax striatellus
(Fallén), Edwardsiana rosae (Linnaeus) and Ribautiana tenerrima
(Herrich - Schäffer). The species which are rare in
Hungary and therefore are interesting in respect of faunal research were:
Enantiocephalus cornutus (Herrich -
Schäffer), Rhoananus hypochlorus (Fieber), Metalimnus formosus
(Boheman), Phlogotettix cyclops (Mulsant and Rey), Ossiannilssonola callosa
(Then) and Mocuellus metrius (Flor). The mean proportion of males was 0.82 and
0.44 in the samples collected by Malaise trapping and sweep netting,
Authors:P. Bukovics, L. Gy. Szabó, Zs. Orosz-Kovács and Á. Farkas
The knowledge of nectar composition in entomogamous fruits, including sour cherry cultivars, is of high importance, since pollinator insects have their own taste-preference, which can influence pollination, and hence fruit yield. The floral secretory product of several sour cherry cultivars was studied from 1997 to 2000, in order to determine the floral insect attraction of the cultivars. Here the nectar composition of two major cultivars, an autofertile ('Újfehértói fürtös') and an autosterile one ('Pándy 48'), will be presented. Samples were collected at the Research and Extension Centre for Fruitgrowing, Újfehértó, Hungary. Nectar was drained from the flowers with a microcapillary, following a 24-hour isolation. Sugar components of the floral secretory product were determined by thin layer chromatography, quantitative analysis was carried out by densitometry. When evaluating the results, air temperatures and precipitation data during sample taking were also taken into consideration. The nectar of both studied cultivars contains all three major sugar components: sucrose, glucose and fructose. In most seasons the total sugar concentration reached the apicultural threshold value (100 mg/ml). On the basis of the sucrose/(glucose+fructose) quotient the nectar of 'Újfehértói fürtös' belonged to the sucrose-rich group each year, like the majority of sour cherry cultivars, whereas the secretory product of 'Pándy 48' could be classified into the sucrose-dominant category in one of the seasons. The nectar sugar composition of 'Újfehértói fürtös' varied to a great extent according to the seasons, while the sugar components in the nectar of 'Pándy 48' were rather stable in the four seasons of study, their amounts changing to a small extent, effected by microclimatic factors.
Authors:H. Nagy-Déri, Zs. Orosz-Kovács and Á. Farkas
The receptaculo-ovarial nectary of quince is located on the adaxial surface of the hypanthium. The glandular tissue is protruding out of the basal part of the receptacular tissue, but the apical part of the nectary is epimorphic. The glands can have various shapes if observed in the median longitudinal section of the flower and gland shapes are characteristic to the cultivars. The anisodiametrical cells of the nectarial epidermis are arranged in one or two rows. The surface of the nectary is covered by cuticle, the thickness of which depends on climatic conditions. Stomata of the nectary are mesoxeromorphic, the guard cells are sunken below the outer anticlinal wall of the epidermis cells. The investigated pear-shaped quince cultivars have more sunken stomata than the apple-shaped ones. Both the glandular tissue and the nectary parenchyma are the thickest on the basal part of the nectary, but taper on the apical part. The nectary parenchyma cells differ from the receptacular ones in shape and size. The phloem bundles, supplying the nectary, do not enter into direct contact with the secretory tissues.The morphological and histological differences that can be found between the nectary of cvs. ‘Konstantinápolyi’ and cvs. ‘Dunabogdányi’, as well as between the gland of the investigated apple-shaped cultivars and pear-shaped ones, can have taxonomic importance and could refer to the various degree of susceptibility of the cultivars to
Authors:Krisztina Bleicher, A. Orosz, J. Cross and V. Markó
The species richness and composition ofAuchenorrhyncha assemblages in three apple orchards in Kent and East Sussex, England was surveyed in 2001 and 2002. Planthoppers, leafhoppers and froghoppers were collected from the tree canopies using yellow sticky traps and a tree beating technique, and from the grass alleyways between the trees using sweep-netting. As a result of intensive sampling, 67 species were collected in an experimental apple orchard at East Malling Research, with a further 30 and 36 species in two organic apple orchards, situated near Marden and Robertsbridge, respectively. A total of 77 species was recorded in the survey. The collection methods applied determined substantially the size and species composition of the samples, the relative abundance of the Auchenorrhyncha species and proportion of males. The most common species collected in the canopy, in decreasing order were:
Edwardsiana rosae, Empoasca decipiens, Ribautiana debilis, Edwardsiana crataegi, Empoasca vitis, Philaenus spumarius
Authors:M. Gulyás, A. Tomocsik, V. Orosz, M. Makádi and G. Füleky
The required quality of compost depends on its final use. All the requirements must be focused on obtaining a product with an acceptable aspect and smell, which is hygienic and free from (or with only traces of) impurities and contaminants. The concept of compost quality especially relevant when the compost is used directly, as a substrate for seedling production or in pots; these applications need high-quality compost. The quality of compost based on concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants and on the absence of pathogens. The aim of the experiment was to prove the absence of the risk using this material in cereal production. The results of the last years suggest that there was no toxic element accumulation in the grain yield of triticale plants.Monitoring of phatogen reduction shows the conventional treatment by mesophilic digestion gives a limited reduction in the content of phatogens. The potential toxic effect of anaerobic digestate was measured in biotest with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum) plants. The rapid biotests proved toxic reduction of plant growth and root development at high rate application of digestate in the first days of germination. The reason of the reduction of root could be explained with the high ammonium concentration of digestate.
Authors:P. Bukovics, Zs. Orosz-Kovács, L. Gy. Szabó, Á. Farkas and T. Bubán
The sugar composition of floral nectar was studied in 17 sour cherry cultivars in Újfehértó in 1997-2000. All samples contained the three most frequent sugar components: glucose, fructose and sucrose, similarly to our previous data. The ranking of the floral nectar in sour cherry cultivars based on sucrose content was the following: 'Újfehértói fürtös' and 'Pándy 48' reached the threshold value of bee visitation in at least three seasons, and a significant amount of sucrose was detected in the flowers of 'Érdi jubileum AB' and 'Érdi bőtermő' as well. The above cultivars proved to be the most valuable in Újfehértó from the viewpoint of apiculture. According to the ranking based on fructose content, which considers human sensation of taste, the most favourable cultivars were 'Újfehértói fürtös', 'Meteor USA' and 'Korai pipacs'. Based on total sugar content the secretory products preferred by bees were those of 'Újfehértói fürtös' (in three seasons); 'Korai pipacs', 'Érdi nagygyümölcsű', 'Sárándi S/Gy', 'Debreceni bőtermő', 'Kántorjánosi 3', 'Montmorency' and 'Meteor USA' (in two seasons). The ratio of nectar sugars, based on the Baker-quotient, S/(G+F), was sucrose-dominant at least in one season in 'Érdi jubileum AB', 'Érdi nagygyümölcsű' and 'Pándy 48'; hexose-rich in 'Korai pipacs', 'Kántorjánosi 3' and 'Montmorency'; all other cultivars had a sucrose-rich nectar. The nectar of all studied sour cherry cultivars possessed a composition preferred by bees. The basis of bees' nectar preference is the ratio, quantity and concentration of nectar sugar components, which were influenced by the effects of season to a high degree, differing from data in literature. From the viewpoint of nectar composition and concentration the most favourable temperature was around 20 °C.
Authors:A. Costa, Z. Orosz, P. Apor, N. Csaba, S. Siamilis, Z. Csende, L. Racz and J. Tihanyi
In animal models, unaccustomed eccentric exercise (EE) has been widely related to muscle fiber membrane (sarcolemma) damage. On the contrary, studies in humans reported that sarcolemma was not susceptible to damage following a single bout of EE. We hypothesized that the single bout of EE used by those studies was not sufficient to induce sarcolemma damage, in humans. In this study we examined muscle biopsies from untrained males who either performed six sets of 15 reps of maximum voluntary eccentric contractions (n=9), for six consecutive days, or served as control-group (n=6). Blood and biopsy samples were obtained one week prior to exercise, immediately after bout 3, and 24h after the last training session. In addition to standard haematoxylin-eosin staining, all biopsies were stained immunohistochemically using antibodies specific for fibronectin and desmin antigens. In the exercise-group, no biopsies taken at pre-exercise or post-exercise level showed evidence of sarcolemma damage as stained by anti-fibronectin antibody in eight of nine subjects. Serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities increased significantly throughout the study despite the lack of sarcolemma damage.We suggest that in humans, repeated bouts of EE do not cause gross sarcolemma damage in the mid-belly of Vastus Lateralis.
Authors:Ibolya Stiller, Rozália Pusztai, Erzsébet Sombor, L. Orosz, A. Pál and B. Taródi
The prevalence, the level and the avidity of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) specific IgG were examined in pregnant women and age-matched female blood donors. The study group consisted of 180 women (age 14-45); 60 women with normal pregnancy, 60 pregnant women with fetuses suspected of having any viral infection and 60 healthy blood donors with no history of pregnancy. Plasma or serum samples were tested for HHV-6 IgG antibodies by an immunofluorescence assay. Ninety-eight percent of blood donors and 97% of 120 pregnant women had IgG antibodies to HHV-6. The rate of seropositivity in women with normal pregnancies and women with fetuses suspected to have viral infection was the same. Pregnant women (n=120) had significantly lower antibody titer than blood donors. No significant differences were found in the same respect between the two groups of pregnant women. Low avidity of IgG antibodies to HHV-6 was detected in 5% of pregnant women.