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Abstract  

De Candolle analyzed in 1883 and 1885, respectively two important fields of human cultural evolution: the domestication of crop plants and the emergence of modern science. In hisHistoire de science et des savants depuis deux sciecles, principles were established, science indicators outlined, interactions examined and mathematical methods applied to the study of a selected data set related to scientific development. In order to compare national and international scientific communities twenty standard factors were considered and national participation in international scientific societies was analysed for 14 European countries and the United States.De Candolle was the first to analyse mathematically the number, dynamics and national distribution of scientists in their professional organisations, the specialization and professionalization of scientists and characterized the scientific potential of different countries with the number of international science society members per inhabitant per period (1750–1884). The role ofde Candolle as a forerunner of modern scientometrics and the science of science is revealed in a comparison of his work with recent trends. In the first five volumes of the journalScientometrics 51 papers were identified dealing with topics related to those dealt with byde Candolle.

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Abstract  

The method is based on the difference of the half-lives of two dififerent radionuclides, having similar -energies. Using the method it is possible to determine the two components in the peaks also in that cases, if the difference between the energies is less, than the energy resolution of the detector. The main point is the perform only one irradiation, but use two different clock times before counting. The criterion of the method can be used when there is significant difference between the half-lives of the radionuclides.

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Abstract  

Due to the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power station /26.04. 1986, USSR/ the radioactive contamination level /e.g.,134Cs,137Cs/ of the biosphere in Hungary increased significantly. The external -dose burden from the contaminated ground surface and atmosphere, and the radioactive isotopes taken up directly through the leaves and indirectly from the soil through the root system had a low-dose effect on the plants which was in the dose-range of stimulation /biopositive effect/.

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Commercial broilers were raised in a 5-week period and a detailed clinico-chemical follow-up was carried out, to characterise a flock selected for one-sided muscle mass production. Blood samples were drawn at the ages of 1 day, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks, and plasma enzyme activities, metabolite and ion concentrations were determined. Early increases were found for all plasma nitrogenous compounds (total protein, albumin, creatinine and urate). Triglyceride showed a post-hatch peak with a significant effect of age. Plasma total cholesterol was characterised by a marked post-hatch concentration peak, while during the first week its concentration decreased markedly. Plasma AST showed an increase during the rearing, while a one-magnitude increment was found for creatine kinase activity during the study. The main results of the study outlined a typical precocial bird (post-hatch triglyceride peak; decreasing cholesterol and early peaking plasma protein and urate concentrations) with very quick skeletal muscle mass growth (increasing creatine kinase and AST activities, slight hyperkalaemia).

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Authors give a report on the recent results of mite collectings made mainly between 2003 and 2009 on ornamental trees and shrubs, on streets, in parks, in forests, in botanical gardens, private gardens and in orchards in various localities of Hungary. This survey also covers material collected in a winter barley and winter wheat field by Malaise-trap and from imported plant consignment. Representatives of 13 families were identified. Out of 31 mite species Arctoseius longispinosus (Hirschmann), Eutogenes frater Volgin, Hypoaspis mixta Shcherbak, Kampimodromus corylosus Kolodochka, Parasitus americanus (Berlese) and Proctolaelaps scolyti Evans are new for the Hungarian fauna.

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Authors made regular mite collectings between 1990 and 2010 on ornamental trees and shrubs, on streets, parks, in city greenery, forests, botanical gardens and private gardens, in various localities of Hungary. Belonging to 6 families, 16 species are reported. New mesostigmatid, prostigmatid and astigmatid mite records and hosts records are presented.

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Owing to the significant differences in the adaptability of state-registered varieties, those which can adapt well to the local conditions should be given preference. There are several high-yielding varieties available in Hungary with excellent agronomic properties, good adaptability and satisfactory baking quality. This study was conducted to analyse the adaptability of 34 state-registered winter wheat varieties tested in the small plot trials of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control (NIAQC) at 5–9 locations between 1994 and 1997 based on their gluten quantity and farinographic index. For the comparison of the varieties the evaluation method of Eberhart and Russell (1966) was applied as modified by Bedő and Balla (1977). The qualitative stability and adaptability values of the varieties differ from the adaptability and stability values calculated from the grain yields. Some winter wheat varieties have good qualitative adaptability and stability, while others have special adaptability and poor qualitative stability, but the majority of the varieties do not belong to these groups.

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