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Abstract

In the digital age, outdoor activities dwindle, affecting the physical and social development of young people. The Venice Basketball League in Los Angeles, California stands out as a haven, blending sports, art, and community, inspiring careers, and transcending societal divides. Amidst challenges, it offers hope, reminding us of the vitality of authentic connections and the transformative power of street culture in shaping vibrant communities and professional careers. As society grapples with the challenges of digital connectivity, the revival of street sports offers a beacon of hope – a reminder of the organic spaces where connections are forged, creativity thrives, and individuals can express themselves authentically.

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The paper examines the relationship between the use of specific knowledge and success among the Hungarian grape growers and wine makers. In the recent decade Hungary has been left behind by the world trends representing an increasing share of premium and superpremium wines (which materialize higher knowledge) in export development. According to our survey, the non-appropriate usage and management of knowledge and skills that would be ‘condition sine qua non’ for wine making might be behind that. However, the use and spread of skills is a basic component in explaining the differences among companies, it is not unambiguous in formulating the business success measured by different indicators. At the same time we can conclude that the Hungarian wine enterprises — keeping the idea of generation, as well as its further development, elaboration, and adequate usage within the frame of the company — can achieve market success.

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Periodica Mathematica Hungarica
Authors:
A. Hajnal
,
L. Tóth
,
H. Sachs
, and
G. Tóth
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With flexible (variable) retirement every individual determines his optimal retirement age, depending on a common benefit-retirement age schedule and his life expectancy. The government maximises the average expected lifetime utility minus a scalar multiple of the variance of the lifetime pension balances to achieve harmony between the maximisation of welfare and the minimisation of redistribution. Since the government cannot identify types by life expectancy, it must take the individual incentive compatibility constraints into account. Second-best schedules strongly reduce the variances of benefits and of retirement ages of the so-called actuarially fair system, thus achieving higher social welfare and lower redistribution.

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We report an investigation on a collection of multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae isolates from a Hungarian neonatal intensive care unit. All the isolates (n=142) were examined by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and ERIC-PCR. The seven ESBL positive isolates (derived from six patients) made up a separated group with regard to their patterns by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and ERIC-PCR and were further tested by class-1-integron PCR and plasmid electrophoresis. The ESBL isolates were found indistinguishable in each of these laboratory tests, one genetic clone were revealed in the background of ESBL cases by PFGE. The ESBL positive isolates were proven to harbour a ∼62 Md plasmid and two class-1 integrons (0.9 kb, 1.875 kb). With respect to their clinical relatedness and our laboratory findings there was a small outbreak caused by the ESBL clone. PCR-sequencing were performed on the outbreak strain and has revealed a bla SHV gene that encodes for an SHV-2a type ESBL enzyme. This is the first description of SHV-2a positive E. cloacae strains isolated in Hungary.

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Dominant halophytes, such as Plantago maritima, Aster tripolium, Artemisia santonicum, Puccinellia limosa, Festuca pseudovina and Lepidium crassifolium were monitored for their colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for two vegetation periods, sampled by monthly frequency. Two saline sites (A: Apaj-puszta and Z: Zabszék) were selected for the survey due to their similar physical and chemical soil characteristics (including the salt level and salt specific anions) and the distinct site use (pasturing or not) or water regime (as drought or temporally flooded at the vicinity of the Zabszék lake).  Colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi greatly depended on the plant species and their physiological status, such as the mycotroph or non-mycotroph character. In this respect the highest mycorrhizal intensity (M%) and arbusculum richness (A%) was found on the Plantago maritima , while Puccinellia limosa was the less dependent species on mycorrhiza fungi.  A characteristic seasonal dynamism was found at both saline sites, for all sampled halophytes. A maximum mycorrhizal colonization was recorded in late spring and early summer, when there was an increased plant-physiological initiative for the helpful symbiosis (i.e. intensive vegetative and/or generative phases of the hosts).  The rate of fungal intensity in the root system (M%), and especially the arbusculum richness (A%) on the other hand was found to be dependent on the site use and the water fluctuation in the soils. A more versatile dynamism of the mycorrhizal colonization was found therefore at the vicinity of the Zabszek lake with the permanent water fluctuations. Under more drought stressed conditions an increased mycorrhizal colonization and functioning (arbusculum richness) was found, generally preceeding the high environmental stress, which was deleterious for both symbiont partners. Such mycorrhizal dynamism in the rhizosphere, however, seems to be a common strategy between the hosts and the microsymbionts in the “struggle for life” process in the Hungarian steppe.

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Periodica Mathematica Hungarica
Authors:
A. Hajnal
,
L. Tóth
, and
L. Lovász
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Abstract  

In this column Periodica Mathematica Hungarica publishes current research problems whose proposers believe them to be within reach of existing methods. Manuscripts should preferably contain the background of the problem and all references known to the author. The length of the manuscript should not exceed two doublespaced typewritten pages.

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Fermented milk products, for example yoghurts contain less lactose than the ordinary milk, however, this quantity of lactose can cause lactose intolerance. The aim of the work was to produce lactose free fermented milk products based on the lactose hydrolysed milk. Products were fermented with Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (N 71) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (N 1), Lactobacillus helveticus (N 43), Lactobacillus acidophilus (N 42).The growth characteristics, the acidity, the most important aroma productivity and the lactose content were measured. Products were evaluated with organoleptical test. Products were lactose free, so they are suitable for people suffering from lactose intolerance. There were differences among the acid content at the end of fermentation. In case of normal yoghurt culture acid content was 29.6 SH° and in case of probiotic cultures 30.4 SH° and 37.5 SH°, respectively. According to the results of sensory evaluation, the product made with traditional yoghurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus)was better than products made with probiotic species because of the higher alcohol and lower acetic acid content.

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