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Cucumber (Cucumus sativus L. var. Beit alpha) seedlings were grown in two groups on boron-deficient (traces of boron) and boron-sufficient (10.0 µM boron) hydroponic media for 30 days under controlled conditions. At harvest, the concentrations of magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) were determined in addition to boron (B) in the dry tissues of roots and leaves. The concentration of phenolic compounds in the roots was also determined. Peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activity was assayed in the fresh plant material. In addition, changes in the peroxidase and catalase isozyme patterns were also identified. The results showed that the vegetative growth of cucumber plants was negatively affected by boron deficiency. Biomass accumulation decreased by as much as 24.3% in the shoots and 49.1% in the roots. The nutrient concentrations in both the leaves and roots of B-stressed plants were substantially lower. Phenolic compounds were accumulated in significant amounts in the roots of deficient plants. The peroxidase and catalase enzyme activities were significantly increased in the tissues of deficient plants and new isozymes were induced or activated. The irregular biochemical changes occurring in B-deficient plants were explained as a plant physiological response to B-deficient conditions.

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Abu-Dabbab area is characterized by high seismicity and complex tectonic setting, for these facts, a local geodetic network consisting of eleven geodetic benchmarks has been established. The crustal deformation data in this area are collected using the GPS techniques. Five campaigns of GPS measurements have been collected, processed and adjusted to get the more accurate positions of the GPS stations. The horizontal velocity vectors, the dilatational, the maximum shear strains and the principal strain rates were estimated. The magnitude of the movements is distributed inhomogeneous over the area and it varies in average between 3 and 6 mm/yr. The results of the deformation analyses indicate a significant contraction and extension across the southern central part of the study area which is characterized by high seismic activity represented by the clustering shape of the microearthquakes that trending NE-SW direction. The north and north-eastern parts are characterized by small strain rates. This study is an attempt to provide valuable information about the present state of the crustal deformation and its relationship to seismic activity and tectonic setting at Abu-Dabbab area.

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Transition metal complexes of heterocyclic Schiff base

Biological activity, spectroscopic and thermal characterization

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
M. Omar
,
G. Mohamed
, and
A. Hindy

Abstract  

Metal complexes of Schiff base derived from 2-furancarboxaldehyde and 2-aminobenzoic acid (HL) are reported and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis, solid reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance and thermal analysis. The ligand dissociation as well as the metal-ligand stability constants have been calculated pH-metrically at 25C and ionic strength μ=0.1 (1 M NaCl). The complexes are found to have the formulae [M(HL)2](X)n yH2O (where M=Fe(III) (X=Cl, n=3, y=4), Co(II) (X=Cl, n=y=2), Ni(II) (X=Cl, n=y=2), Cu(II) (X=Cl, n=y=2) and Zn(II) (X=AcO, n=y=2)) and [UO2(L)2]2H2O. The thermal behaviour of these chelates is studied and the activation thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern method. The ligand and its metal complexes show a biological activity against some bacterial species.

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Abstract  

Different nitrogen fertilizers produced in Egypt were analyzed mass-spectrometrically for their15N content. The results indicate that nitrate fertilizers are relatively enriched in15N compared with ammonium fertilizers. The isotopic fractionation of nitrogen encountered in the production processes of fertilizers are discussed.

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Determination of trace elements of egyptian crops by neutron activation analysis

II. Trace elements in umbelliferae and legumirosae families

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
M. Sherif
,
R. Awadallah
, and
A. Mohamed

Abstract  

Neutron activation analysis, NAA, a high resolution Ge(Li) gamma ray spectrometer was used to determine the concentration of Al, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, W, and Zn in Cumin, coriander, carrots, and Daucus carrota (Umbelliferae Family), alfalfa, Kidney bean, Phaseolus sativus, Phaseolus vulgaris, bean, lenses, and fenugreek (Legumirosae Family). Multielement determination technique on destructive and nondestructive samples was followed. This method is simple, precise and sensitive to 17 trace elements.

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Abstract

Tramadol, a strong pain killer known for its addictive problems is either co-administrated or co-formulated with other analgesics or muscle relaxants. The power of fluorescence detection in HPLC is tested to resolve such mixtures in plasma matrix to reach the required sensitivity with simple sample treatment using just protein precipitation. The aim of this work was to develop an eco-friendly and sensitive HPLC method with fluorimetric detection for analysis of Tramadol in its two binary mixtures with Ibuprofen (mixture 1) and Chlorzoxazone (mixture 2) in two combined dosage forms and spiked plasma. Separation was done using a C18 column with mobile phase of acetonitrile and water (pH 3.5) in gradient elution and 1 mL/min flow rate. Detection was carried out with λ excitation/λ emission of 220 and 307 nm, respectively. The method was applied to detect the two binary mixtures in real plasma samples after invivo application to rats, to assure that the drugs’ metabolites do not affect the sensitivity or selectivity of the assay. Evaluation of greenness of the proposed method was done using semi-quantitative Eco‐Scale and new Green Analytical Procedure Index which showed that this method can be a greener alternative with higher sensitivity for analysis of both mixtures. The method (15 min-assay) was linear over concentrations of 0.1–10 μg/mL and 0.1–33 μg/mL in plasma. In addition, the proposed method was validated per ICH as well as FDA bioanalytical methods’ validation guidelines.

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Abstract

Ibuprofen (C15H18O2) is an anti-inflammatory drug. It is important to investigate its structure to know the active groups and weak bond responsible for its medical activity. Consequently in the present study, ibuprofen was investigated by mass spectrometry (MS) and thermal analyses (TAs) (TG/DTG and DTA), and confirmed by semi-empirical molecular orbital (MO) calculation using PM3 procedure, on the neutral and positively charged forms of the drug. These calculations included bond order, bond length, and bond strain, and charge distribution, heat of formation, and ionization energy. The mass spectra and thermal analysis fragmentation pathways were proposed and compared to each other to select the most suitable scheme representing the correct fragmentation pathway of the drug in both techniques. From the electron ionization (EI) mass spectra, the primary cleavage site of the charged molecule is because of the rupture of COOH group (the lowest bond order) followed by propyl group loss. The TAs of the drug revealed high response of the drug to the temperature variation with very fast rate. It decomposed in several sequential steps in the temperature range 25–360 °C. The initial thermal decomposition is similar to that obtained by MS fragmentation of the first rupture (COOH), then subsequent one of propyl loss, and finally of ethylene loss. These mass losses appear as endothermic peaks required energy values of −214.83, −895.95, and −211.10 J g−1, respectively. The order of these losses is also related to the values of the MO calculation parameters. Therefore, the comparison between MS and TA helps in the selection of the proper pathway representing the decomposition of this drug to give its metabolites in in vivo system. This comparison is also successfully confirmed by MO calculations.

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Summary

A simple, selective, precise, and stability-indicating thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for analysis of some angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AIIRAs), namely, Losartan potassium (Los-K), Irbesartan (Irb), and Candesartan cilexetil (Cand) in the bulk drug and in pharmaceutical formulations (tablets). The method was based on using TLC plates pre-coated with silica gel G 60 on aluminum sheets as stationary phase and the development system was performed using chloroform:methanol (9:1) giving well separated and compact spots for all the studied drugs (R F values 0.41–0.53). The separated spots were characterized by viewing under the UV lamp, then visualized as orange spots by spraying with Dragendorff's reagent and measured by densitometry. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions, linear relationships were obtained between response and concentrations of each studied drug with high correlation coefficients (0.9985–0.9994). Good accuracy and precision were successfully obtained for the analysis of tablets containing each drug alone or combined with diuretic drug hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). No interferences could be observed from the co-formulated HCTZ, commonly encountered excipients present in tablets as well as the degradation products. The results were compared successfully with reported methods and can be used as a stability-indicating assay.

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Abstract

Four novel azo compounds were synthesized: o-phenylazo-(C14H13N3O2) (I), p-bromo-o-phenylazo-(C14H13BrN3O2) (II), p-methoxy-o-phenylazo-(C15H16N3O3) (III), and p-nitro-o-phenylazo-p-acetamidophenol (C14H13N4O4) (IV). These compounds were carefully investigated using elemental analyses, IR, and thermal analyses (TA) in comparison with electron ionization (EI) mass spectral (MS) fragmentation at 70 eV. Semi-empirical MO calculation, PM3 procedure, has been carried out on the four azo dyes (I–IV), both as neutral molecules and the corresponding positively charged molecular ions. These included molecular geometries (bond length, bond order, and charge distribution, heats of formation, and ionization energies). The mass spectral fragmentation pathways and thermal decomposition mechanisms were reported and interpreted on the basis of molecular orbital (MO) calculations. They are found to be highly correlated to each other. Also, the Hammett’s effects of p-methoxy, p-bromo, and p-nitro-substituents of phenyl azo groups on the thermal stability of these dyes (I–IV) are studied by experimental (TA and MS) in comparison with MO calculations, and the data obtained are discussed. This research aimed chiefly to throw more light on the structures of the four prepared azo derivatives of acetoamidophenol (p-cetamol). The data refering to the thermal stability of these dyes can be used in industry for effective dyeing purposes under different thermal conditions.

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Abstract  

Multielemental instrumental neutron activation (INAA), inductively coupled plasmaatomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) and atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) analyses are utilized for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, P. Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn in sugar cane plant, raw juice, juice in different stages, syrup, deposits, molasses, A, B and C sugar, refinery 1 and 2 sugar, and in soil samples picked up from the immediate vicinity of the cane plant roots at surface, 30 and 60 cm depth.

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