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Thirty-day-old plants of Lens culinaris (L.) Medic. cv. Pusa-6 were sprayed with 10-10, 10-8 or 10-6 M aqueous solutions of 28-homobrassinolide (HBR). Root length and nodule number per plant decreased, whereas the leaf nitrate reductase activity (E.C. 220.127.116.11) at 60, 90 and 120 days after sowing and the seed yield at harvest increased significantly in plants sprayed with either concentration of HBR. The values increased at first with an increase in the concentration of HBR but decreased with a further increase above 10-8M, which proved best for improving seed production.
The economic threshold level of Meloidogyne incognita, Alternaria dauci and Rhizoctonia solani were determined on carrot (Daucus carota L.) under greenhouse conditions. The results revealed that plant length, plant fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid decreased progressively with the corresponding increase in the inoculum levels of each pathogen. The significant reduction in plant growth parameters, chlorophyll and carotenoid occurred when 2000 or more second stage juveniles (J2s) of M. incognita, 1.0 g or more inoculum of A. dauci or R. solani per kg soil were inoculated. Maximum reduction in plant growth attributes, chlorophyll and carotenoid occurred at the highest inoculum level of the test pathogens. Increase in the inoculum level of M. incognita caused an increase in the number of root galls, while the multiplication of nematode was found inversely related to the inoculum density. The increase in the inoculum levels of A. dauci and R. solani resulted in a progressive increase in leaf blight and crown rot indices and caused a higher reduction in plant growth parameters. The damaging threshold level of M. incognita was 2000 J2 per kg soil while 1.0 g per kg soil of A. dauci or R. solani was threshold level on carrot. The assessment of infestation levels of test pathogens will enable growers to cost-effectively select and implement the management tactics.
A solvent extraction procedure for rapid separation of uranium from complex nuclear reaction product mixtures is suggested. The procedure has been tested in batch experiments with tracer amounts of representative elements. It has also been tested with fission products and uranium tracer using the continuous chemical separation system SISAK at the Mainz TRIGA reactor.
A radiochemical method for simultaneous determination of toxic elements (Hg, Cd and Sb) in biological materials has been developed. The procedure involves the irradiation of samples with thermal neutrons and quantitative one-step separation in 0.1M 4-(5-nonyl)pyridine/benzene from 2.0M hydrochloric acid followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. The procedure is applied for the analysis and to the studies of distribution of these elements in IAEA-RMs, human serum and hair samples. Results obtained are found to be in good agreement with those reported in the literature.
Effects of humidity and light conditions /fluoroscent light, sunlight and diffuse sunlight/ on the response of 2 mm thick clear polymethylmethacrylate /PMMA/ dosimeter during irradiation and during postirradiation storage were determined spectrophotometrically at 305 and 314 nm. The results showed that irradiation of dosimeters at 12–97% relative humidity did not result in any change in the response upto 2 weeks of post-irradiation storage. However, there is some decrease in the response at higher humidities />76%/ for longer storage time. Post-irradiation storage and dosimeters at constant relative humidity conditions between 35 and 97% had no effect on the response up-to 3 weeks. Post-irradiation storage at lower relative humidity /12%/ showed some decrease in the response for longer periods. The response of dosimeter is not very sensitive to short time exposure to diffuse sunlight and fluorescent light. However, a significant increase in the optical density was observed during exposure of dosimeters to direct sunlight.
A routine procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of uranium and thorium in high concentration thorium ores. INAA is used to determine the uranium and thorium concentration. However, for very low concentrations of uranium a radiochemical procedure based on the use of NPy/benzene as an extractant has to be employed. The precision and accuracy of the method has been determined by analyzing IAEA and NBL standard thorium/uranium ores.
Effects of Meloidogyne incognita, Alternaria dauci and Fusarium solani were studied on carrot (Daucus carota L.) growth, chlorophyll, carotenoid and proline contents in different types of soil. Plants grown in 20:80 and 40:60% sand:clay soil mixtures showed a significant increase in root dry weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents compared to plants grown in 100% clay soil. However, use of 60:40 sand:clay resulted in a similar root dry weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents as was found in carrots grown in 100% clay soil. Inoculation of plants with M. incognita, A. dauci or F. solani caused a significant reduction in root dry weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in all soil types as compared to their respective control. Inoculation of plants by A. dauci caused the greatest reduction in root dry weight followed by F. solani and M. incognita in different sand and clay mixtures. Use of 20:80, 40:60 or 60:40 sand:clay mixtures caused a significant increase in proline content of plants over those grown in 100% clay soil. Similarly, inoculation of M. incognita, A. dauci and F. solani caused a significant increase in proline content in all soil types compared to their respective control.
Rapeseed oil was used for frying of potato fillets (French fries) for 4 consecutive days at a rate of 20 minutes per day. The quality constants such as peroxide value (POV), anisidine value (AV), free fatty acid polar compounds (FFA%) and colour index (as OD at 420 nm) were determined before and after frying. The results showed an increasing pattern in the values of quality parameters. The POV increased from 4.42 to 17.00 meq kg-1, AV from 8.37 to 65.60, FFA from 0.02 to 1.90% and colour (absorbance at 420 nm) from 0.16 to 2.20. Fried rapeseed oil was mixed separately with 3 levels of MgO (2, 4 and 6% w/w) and activated charcoal (2, 6 and 10% w/w). For all the treatments the average % improvement of quality indices was statistically analysed. Increasing levels of both activated carbon and MgO significantly affected (P<0.05) the different quality parameters tested so far.
In this paper, we introduce inclusion ideals I(H) associated to a special class of non uniform hypergraphs H(gC; ɛ; d), namely, the uniformly increasing hypergraphs. We discuss some algebraic properties of the inclusion ideals. In particular, we give an upper bound of the Castelnouvo-Mumford regularity of the special dual ideal I [*](H).