Samples of nominal 18 carat and 21 carat gold jewelleries from the local market were non-destructively bulk analyzed using neutron activation analysis. Neutrons of 14 MeV energy were used with a fast pneumatic sample transfer system. The actual gold contents, as well as the composition of the base metals in these samples were determined. The fast neutron activation was found to be an efficient, quick and accurate method of characterizing the precious metal objects routinely in bulk, with a large sample throughput. The results demonstrate the commercial availability of the technique for non-destructive bulk analysis of precious metal objects.
Liquid — liquid extraction of Ag(I) by diphenyl-2-pyridylmethane (DPPM) in benzene from aqueous nitric and sulfuric acid solutions containing thiocyanate ions has been studied at ambient temperature (24±2 °C). The metal is extracted quantitatively from 0.01M HNO3+0.02M KSCN; or 0.25M H2SO4+0.02M KSCN by 0.1M DPPM (optimum extraction conditions). Slope analysis indicates that two types of ion-pair complexes i.e. [(DPPMH)+·Ag(SCN)
] and [(DPPMH)
] are involved in the extraction process. Separation factors determined at optimum conditions reveal the separation of Ag(I) from Cs(I), Br(I), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Fe(III), Au(III) (from HNO3 solution only), Cr(III), Hf(IV), Ta(V), Sn(IV) and Cr(VI). With the exception of thiosulfate, other complexing anions like ascorbate, acetate, citrate, oxalate do not hinder the extraction of Ag(I) under optimum conditions.
The batch kinetics of Fe(III) adsorption on HTTA-loaded polyurethane (PU) foam have been investigated. The rate of controlling the adsorption is found to be intraparticle diffusion. The reaction rate of adsorption and desorption was also evaluated and found to increase and decrease with temperature, respectively. This indicates an endothermic adsorption behavior of Fe(III) on HTTA loaded PU foam. The activation energy of adsorption (80±10 kJ·mol–1) and of desorption (–45±±2 kJ· mol–1) indicates the chemical adsorption rather than physical adsorption. The isosteric heat of adsorption (
Hads) was found to be –82.7±5.05 kJ·mol–1. This shows the formation of new chemical bonds among Fe(III)-HTTA-PU foam. The thermodynamic parameters of
S, and equilibrium constantKc have been calculated. These functions further support that the process of adsorption of Fe(III) on HTTA-loaded PU foam is endothermic and chemisorption, stabilized through thermodynamic functions.
Absorption bands in the range of 350–950 nm, induced in copper-containing lead borate glasses by -rays were identified and characterized. The effect of irradiation dose, copper oxide and lead oxide contents on the intensity and position of the induced absorption bands were also considered. Several induced absorption bands were observed. At least two bands in the ranges of 740–780 and 850–870 nm could be identified. They are suggested to be associated with induced Cu(2+) ions. The band in the 800–830 nm (1.6 eV) range is ascribed to the Pb(3+) ion, whereas others in the ranges of 600–630 and 650–730 nm are associated with the intrinsic defects formed in the base glass.
The complexation of uranyl ion with acetate ions was investigated in 20% ethanolic solution by using cyclic voltammetry. The
uranium formed 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with acetate ions. The values of log β1 and log β2 for uranyl acetate complexes were 2.05 ± 0.08 and 5.25 ± 0.06 respectively. The diffusion coefficient and heterogeneous rate
constants for the reduction of uranyl ion at hanging mercury drop electrode in 20% ethanolic solution of acetate ions were
0.43 × 10−5 cm2 s−1 and 2.26 × 10−3 cm s−1, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated by finding the effect of temperature on the heterogeneous rate
constants. The values of ΔH*, ΔS* and
The sorption of Fe(III) at low pH range from 1 to 4.5 on open cell polyether type HTTA-loaded polyurethane foam has been carried out using batch technique. The optimum shaking time for 2.5· 10–4M solution of Fe(III) was found to be 30 minutes. The concept of macropore and micropore nature of polyurethane foam sorbent offers unique advantages of adsorption. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms are followed at low concentration range from 1·10–4 to 3·10–4M solution of Fe(III). The Freundlich constant (1/n=0.46±0.013 andK=9.16±1.39 mg·g–1) and Langmuir isotherm constants(M=21.78 mg·g–1 andb=88.41±9.731·g–1) were established. The sorption mean free energyE=12.22±0.09 kJ·mol–1 and loading capacityCm=145.21±6.1 mg·g–1 were evaluated using Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm, which suggested that the adsorption mechanism was chemisorption.
The uptake behavior of Sb(V) onto diphenylthiocarbazone (H2DZ) loaded polyurethane foam (PUF) from aqueous solutions of different acids in the presence of KI have been studied. The maximum adsorption was found from 0.5N HNO3 containing 0.2M KI. The maximum equilibrium was achieved within twenty minutes shaking time. The sorption behavior followed the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The Freundlich constants 1/n and Kf are 0.57 and 3.26.10-2 mol.g-1, respectively. The Langmuir constants M and b are 2.18.10-4 mol.g-1 and 2.4.104 l.g-1, respectively. The value of sorption free energy (E) evaluated from D-R isotherm is 10.8 kJ.mol-1 indicating the ion exchange type chemisorption of Sb(V) on H2DZ loaded PUF. The thermodynamic parameters of enthalpy (H), entropy (S) and Gibbs free energy (G) have also been investigated and found to be -51.8 kJ.mol-1, -127.3 J.mol-1.deg-1 and -13.8 kJ.mol-1, respectively. The negative values of (H) and (G) indicate that the sorption is exothermic and spontaneous in nature. The effect of anions and cations and sorption mechanism are discussed.
Fission fragments from heavy ion induced fission were stopped in thin magnesium foils. A fast procedure based on evolution
of stibine was developed to separate the antimony isotopes embedded in the foil. A separation system, and a glass pressure
filtration system was constructed for this purpose. The chemical yield measured by three independent methods was 80–90%. The
degree of decontamination from other fission products was >102. The whole separation took eight minutes.
The concentration of radioactive226Ra,232Th and40K in building and ceramic materials of Bangladesh was investigated by γ-spectrometry with two HPGe detectors. Radium equivalent
activities, representative level index values, criterion formula, emanation coefficients and222Rn mass exhalation rates were estimated for the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in the materials. The activity
concentrations of the natural radionuclides, radium equivalent activities, emanation coefficients and222Rn mass exhalation rates are compared with the corresponding values for building and ceramic materials of different countries.
The radium equivalent activities in the samples varied between 30.9 (mosaic stone) and 328.0 Bq·kg−1 (gypsum). The emanation coefficient of the materials ranged from 7.83 (cement) to 33.0% (soil) and the222Rn mass exhalation rate ranged from 2.31 (stone chips) to 118.0 μBq·kg−1·s−1 (gypsum).