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  • Author or Editor: A. Araújo x
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Abstract  

The use of catalysts in numerous important processes is widespread throughout the chemical and petroleum-processing industries. Thermal analytical techniques can be used to evaluate important properties and processes associated with solid catalysts. This paper presents examples carried out in our laboratory of the general application of TG and DSC to the acidity, activity and regeneration of solid catalysts.

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Abstract  

A thermogravimetric method is proposed for study of the kinetic parameters of coked HZSM-5 zeolite regeneration. The technique, which makes use of integral thermogravimetric curves, was optimized by microprocessed integrated mathematical methods. The kinetic parameters obtained from the TG curves are the activation energy, the rate constants, the half-life times, and in particular the coke removal time as a function of temperature. The activation energy calculated by using the Flynn and Wall kinetic method was 81.4 kJ mol−1. It was observed that, to remove 99% of the coke from the zeolite in a period of 1 h, it would be necessary to carry out thermo-oxidation at 748 K, with a dry air purge flow of 120 cm3 min−1.

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Abstract  

The SiMCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieve was synthesised by the hydrothermal method. The physicochemical characterisation by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry, showed that the material presents a well-defined structure. In this study, the determination of the total acidity and relative strength of the acid sites of the SiMCM-41,was performed by desorption of adsorbed n-butylamine combined with thermogravimetric measurements. The total acidity, determined by means of the amount of amine desorbed normalised by mass of solid, was equivalent to 0.927 mmol g–1, in the temperature range from 96 to 235°C. By using the Flynn and Wall integral kinetic model, at 5, 10 and 20°C min–1 heating rates, it was determined that the activation energy to desorb n-butylamine was 90.7 kJ mol–1, in the same temperature range, evidencing that SiMCM-41 presents only weak acid sites on its surface.

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Abstract  

HZSM-5 zeolite was screened as catalyst for high density polyethylene degradation at 450‡C, under nitrogen static atmosphere. Two different samples were studied in this condition: HDPE alone and mixed with HZSM-5. The reactor was connected on line to an HP 5890-II gas Chromatograph. Sample degradation was investigated using a Perkin-Elmer Delta 7 Thermobalance, from room temperature to 800‡C, with heating rates of 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0‡C min−1. From TG curves, the activation energies, calculated using an integral kinetic method, decreased 60.6% in the presence of the zeolite.

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Abstract  

The temporal and spatial distribution of the REEs was determined, by INAA, in sediment cores collected at Northern Iberian shelf along the area between the Finisterra Cape and the mouth of Minho river, to contribute to the understanding of the origin and sedimentation processes of sediments deposited at the Continental Shelf. The distribution pattern of the REEs were flat and similar to the shales. A negative Eu anomaly was found for all the sections of the analyzed cores. Significant positive correlations between the REE and Zr and Hf contents suggest that zircon is responsible for hosting both light and heavy REEs.

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The spatial distribution of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was analysed in ornamental crops (roses and spray-type carnations) and horticultural crops (pepper and strawberries), inside greenhouses, using sticky traps. In ornamental crops, at low population densities, during the winter, there was not a constant location of the isolated foci of infestation, from one week to the next, or a specific pattern of variation in that location. In spray-type carnations, pepper and strawberries, at higher population densities, in spring and summer, the basic units of distribution were the individuals, and they were aggregated. For roses, at those population levels, a random distribution was observed, with a tendency for aggregation. The number of traps needed to estimate population densities, in each crop, was evaluated for two fixed levels of precision (0.10 and 0.25) and results are indicated and discussed.

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