Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was carried out with a set of 114 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the International Triticeae Mapping Initiative (ITMI) population of ‘W7984’ × ‘Opata 85’ to identify genomic regions controlling traits related to post-anthesis drought tolerance of wheat (
L.). In two experiments performed in Gatersleben in 2001 and 2003, the amount stem reserves mobilisation was estimated by measuring of changes in 1000-grain weight after chemical desiccation treatment. QTLs for stem reserves mobilisation
were mapped on chromosomes 2D, 5D and 7D. The mapping positions obtained in the present investigation are discussed with respect to studies on drought tolerance performed in wheat previously. QTLs for drought tolerance preferentially appeared in homoeologous regions at distal parts of the group 7 chromosomes.
PCR assays specific for the GA insensitive dwarfing genes (alleles)
were employed to study a series of additional alleles of
. The amplification profiles of
were not distinguishable from one another, whereas lines carrying
amplified a product analogous to that of the wild type. At the 4D locus, no discrimination was possible between
. As a result, the utilisation of these PCR assays is limited. Examples of the analysis of germplasm and spontaneous occurring off-types are presented.
Authors:O. Tereshchenko, E. Gordeeva, V. Arbuzova, A. Börner, and E. Khlestkina
Previously, it was suggested that purple grain colour was transferred to bread wheat from purple-grained tetraploid T. durum. In the current study, we demonstrated that the D genome of bread wheat ‘Purple’ carries one of two complementary genes determining purple grain colour. This gene was mapped on the short arm of chromosome 7D 2.5 cM distal to the locus Rc-D1 determining red coleoptile colour. This position is highly comparable with that of the Pp1 gene mapped earlier on the short arm of chromosome 7B in tetraploid T. durum.We suggest the Pp genes on T. durum chromosome 7B and T. aestivum chromosome 7D are orthologous. We designated them Pp-B1 and Pp-D1, respectively. Microsatellite-based genotyping of near-isogenic lines ‘i:S29Pp1Pp2PF’ and ‘i:S29Pp1Pp3P’, their recurrent (T. aestivum ‘Saratovskaya 29’) and donor (T. aestivum ‘Purple Feed’ and ‘Purple’, respectively) parents showed the presence of donor introgressions on chromosomes 2A and 7D in both near-isogenic lines. In addition to previously described purple pericarp, anthers and culms, phenotyping of these lines in the current study showed dark red coleoptile colour (with anthocyanin contents four times higher than in ‘Saratovskaya 29’ coleoptiles) and purple leaf blade and leaf sheath colour. It was concluded that each of the lines ‘i:S29Pp1Pp2PF’ and ‘i:S29Pp1Pp3P’ carry clusters of genes Rc-D1, Pc-D1, Pan-D1, Plb-D1, Pls-D1 and Pp-D1 on chromosome 7D between microsatellite markers Xgwm0044 and Xgwm0676.
Authors:E. Khlestkina, T. Pshenichnikova, M. Röder, and A. Börner
Two bread wheat crosses were used to genetically map the genes determining anthocyanin pigmentation of the anther
, culm (
), leaf sheath
, and leaf blade
. The genes cluster with
(red coleoptile) on chromosome arms 7BS and 7DS. A germplasm panel of 37 wheat cultivars and introgression lines was tested for the presence of anthocyanin pigmentation on various plant organs, and significant correlations were established between pigmentation of the coleoptile and culm, coleoptile and leaf blade, coleoptile and anther, and anther and leaf blade.
Authors:E. Khlestkina, E. Salina, T. Pshenichnikova, M. Röder, and A. Börner
A segregation test confirmed that the genes present on chromosome 1A encoding red and black glumes are allelic to one another. Similarly, the chromosome 1D genes for smokey-grey and red glume coloration are allelic. Consensus maps of chromosomes 1A and 1D carrying
, respectively, were derived from extant genotypic data. The
associated microsatellite MW1B002 mapped 2cM proximal from
. The association of red glume coloration with specific MW1B002 alleles is described for a set of Russian, Albanian, Indian and Nepalese bread wheats.
Authors:L.V. Shchukina, T.A. Pshenichnikova, A.K. Chistyakova, E.K. Khlestkina, and A. Börner
Various milling parameters, wet gluten content and key dough properties were analyzed for two sister lines of bread wheat with Ae. markgrafii introgressions in genetic background of cultivar Alcedo carrying a set of sub-chromosomal alien segments on chromosomes 2AS, 2BS, 3BL, 4AL and 6DL. The lines revealed higher grain vitreousness, larger particle size of flour, and higher wet gluten content in grain compared to cv. Alcedo. The flour from these lines also showed excellent water absorption and developed more resilient dough. The introgressions in the Alcedo genome caused no reduction in 1,000-grain weight. General improvement of the grain technological properties appears to be the result of introgressions into 2AS, 2BS and 3BL chromosomes. Coincidence of locations of Ae. markgrafii introgressions in chromosome with the QTLs positions for technological traits, revealed in bread wheat mapping populations, is discussed.
Authors:S. Osipova, A. Permyakov, M. Permyakova, V. Davydov, T. Pshenichnikova, and A. Börner
Variation in tolerance of prolonged drought was identified among a set of single chromosome bread wheat substitution lines, involving the replacement of each cv. Chinese Spring chromosome in turn with its homologue from a synthetic hexaploid (Triticum dicoccoides × Aegilops tauschii). Water stress was applied under controlled conditions by limiting the supply of water to 30% from 100% aqueous soil. The reaction to the resulting long-term drought stress was quantified by three indices, based on grain yield components. Enhanced drought tolerance was associated with the presence of donor chromosomes 1A, 5A, 1D, 3D, 5D and 6D, and enhanced susceptibility with chromosomes 3A, 4B and 7D.
Authors:E. Khlestkina, E. Antonova, L. Pershina, A. Soloviev, E. Badaeva, A. BÖrner, and E. Salina
Anthocyanin accumulation in vegetative organs has a relationship to stress resistance in plants. In wheat, ability to accumulate anthocyanins in the coleoptile is inherited and controlled by the Rc (red coleoptile) genes. The aim of the current study was to find potential sources of ‘strong’ Rc alleles conferring very high levels of anthocyanin production and to study the effect of genetic background on Rc expression. We measured the relative anthocyanin content (OD530) in the coleoptile of different wheat and wheat-alien genetic stocks and accessions to find potential sources of ‘strong’ Rc alleles conferring very high levels of anthocyanin production. The OD530 values varied from 0.514 to 3.311 in genotypes having red coleoptiles. The highest anthocyanin content was detected in coleoptiles of four Triticum dicoccoides accessions originating from Israel and the Russian T. aestivum cultivar ‘Novosibirskaya 67’, suggesting that their Rc alleles can be used to increase anthocyanin content in the coleoptile of wheat cultivars. It is also suggested that rye Rc alleles, such as that of Russian cultivar ‘Selenga’, can be used to increase anthocyanin content in triticale seedlings.
Authors:S. Navakode, A. Weidner, R. Varshney, U. Lohwasser, U. Scholz, and A. Börner
Barley is more sensitive than the other major cereal crops to aluminium (Al) toxicity. Here, a doubled haploid mapping population was exploited to study the inheritance of Al tolerance in barley. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was based on a genetic map constructed with genic markers. Al tolerance QTL were identified on chromosomes 2H, 3H and 4H. A sequence homology search was used to derive the putative function of the genes linked to the QTL, in order to identify potential candidate genes for Al tolerance. Some of these candidates are implicated in stress/defence responses, in particular, stress signal transduction, transcription regulation factors and cell metabolism.
Authors:I. Leonova, E. Budashkina, K. Flath, A. Weidner, A. Börner, and M. Röder
A leaf rust resistance gene transferred from the tetraploid wheat
(Zhuk.) Zhuk. (genomic composition: A
GG) into common wheat
L. conditioned resistance at the seedling and adult plant stages in the introgression line ‘line 842-2’. To determine chromosome location and to map the resistance gene an F
population from a cross between ‘line 842-2’ and susceptible wheat cultivar ‘Skala’ was developed and screened against leaf rust pathotype 77 (
Erikss.). Microsatellite markers detected introgressions of the
genome on chromosomes 1A, 2A, 2B, 5B and 6B of ‘line 842-2’. Linkage analysis revealed an association between leaf rust resistance and microsatellite markers located on chromosome 5B. The markers
were closely linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances of 7.7 cM and 10.4 cM, respectively. Infection type tests with three leaf rust isolates resulted in different patterns of infection types of ‘line 842-2’ and ‘Thatcher’ near-isogenic line with the
gene on chromosome 5B. The data corroborated the hypothesis of the diversity of the resistance coming from
. The resistance gene of the introgression ‘line 842-2’ seems to be different than
and therefore it was designated