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Bedrock has an essential role in the formation of soils, it fundamentally determines mineral composition. The present research focuses on the minerals in forest soils formed in the Bükk Mountains (NE Hungary). The composition of soil minerals was in accordance with the geological features as well as with the changes in climate and vegetation, which provide a basis for tracking the past of the soil formation mechanisms (Nemecz, 2006). Thus, by studying the mineral composition the formation processes and development of the soils can be unveiled.According to the findings it can be assumed that the investigated soils, although formed primarily on solid limestone, cannot be the products of the weathering of limestone solely, as they also contain significant amounts of silicates. The major part of the soil forming materials presumably originates from earlier dust fallings or from alluvial deposits by erosion. The former assumption is confirmed by the fact that the investigated area is located at a high altitude, thus significant amounts of eroded material could only originate from a short distance, where the bedrock also consists of limestone. Further research is needed for more detailed knowledge on the mineral composition of the soils, thus on the development of the soils and the bedrock of the investigated area.

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The present article discusses the applicability of thermoanalytical methods in the analysis of Hungarian soils formed on carbonate rocks. Up to now only limited mineralogical and soil chemical research has been done on these soils. Soils from the Bükk Mountains, the most varied limestone region in Hungary, were used for the investigations. The aim was to extend our incomplete knowledge on the mineral composition and formation processes of these soils and to demonstrate the possibilities and evaluation potential of thermoanalytical techniques. All the soils investigated were formed on limestone and had different surface soil thickness, influenced by the accumulation of silicate debris and the microterrain. The results of soil mineralogical analysis revealed an extraordinarily high proportion of quartz compared to that of other minerals (especially calcite), indicating that these soils could not have originated solely from the weathering of the limestone bedrock. The results also showed that thermoanalytical methods could complement classical chemical and instrumental (XRPD) methods in research on the genesis of soils formed on limestone.

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The Sopron Wine Region is one of the most significant and historical wineproducing regions in Hungary, with a total area of 4300 hectares, out of which 1800 hectares are used for grapevine cultivation. The aim of the present research was to carry out basic measurements for soil, grape and wine in the Sopron Wine Region to obtain preliminary results for future investigations.The demonstrated methods are suitable for the combined analysis of soils, grape berry and wine. It was established that there are differences between the composition of grape berry and wine of the selfsame vine cultivar in the investigated areas. The terroir effects of the Sopron Wine Region have not been studied as yet extensively, although there are several international studies in this field (e.g. Hugget, 2006; Csikász-Krizsics & Diófási, 2008; Fernández-Marín et al., 2013). By future measurements carried out on a large number of samples and with sophisticated multivariate statistical analysis the relationships between measured physical and chemical parameters can be evaluated in the region, providing basis for establishing terroir aspects.

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The current methodology of forest site evaluation has some challenging weaknesses, which may greatly influence the efficiency of both forest planning and forest management practice. This fact keeps us searching for new methods to overcome the difficulties. The present paper gives a short overview of our research on GIS based digital soil mapping techniques and their possible application in forestry, offering a powerful tool for forest site evaluation. The paper focuses on four main issues. First, the main weakness in site evaluation, second, methods of digital soil mapping, third, the description of the study areas and mapping procedures, and finally, the possible outcomes and the major directions of further development.

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Dry oak forests have one of the richest understory vegetation in Europe, but the environmental drivers of this community have been scarcely revealed. In this study, we assessed whether the amount of light, soil pH or stand heterogeneity affect primarily the species composition of this community. We investigaed 332 sampling plots in 40-165 year old managed and abandoned Quercus cerris and Q. petraea dominated forests in North Hungary. Presence-absence data of herbaceous species and seedlings of woody species were recorded in 28 subplots within each sampling plot. Stand structure, canopy openness and soil pH were also measured in each plot. The relationships between stand characteristics and the species assemblage were explored by redundancy analysis, while the individual responses of species and species groups were studied by generalized linear mixed models. Multivariate methods and individual species response analyses provided similar results, the amount of light and soil pH were equally important variables (both of them explained 2.8% of species variance), while stand heterogeneity had a bit lower, albeit still significant role in determining understory species composition (1.9% of species variance explained). Seedlings of woody species preferred shaded (half-shaded) conditions, while many herbaceous species were positively related to light. The effect of the three explanatory variables was hard to separate, since they influenced each other as well. Sessile oak seedlings and herbs typical of dry forests, forest edges, grasslands and acidic soil habitats preferred light rich habitats with homogeneous stand structure and low soil pH. Mesic forest herbs and seedlings of other woody species were related to relatively high soil pH, heterogeneous stand structure and closed canopy. These two understory types were clearly separated regarding composition. This study emphasizes the importance of heterogenous light conditions and mosaic, diverse forest structure (presence of homogeneous and heterogeneous forest patches) during forest management for the maintenance of understory biodiversity.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: T. Tóth, T. Németh, A. Bidló, F. Dér, M. Fekete, T. Fábián, Z. Gaál, B. Heil, T. Hermann, E. Horváth, G. Kovács, A. Makó, F. Máté, K. Mészáros, Z. Patocskai, F. Speiser, I. Szűcs, G. Tóth, Gy. Várallyay, J. Vass, and Sz. Vinogradov
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