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A quick and reproducible tool for cultivar identification is useful to assess in certified seed production programs and to resolve legal conflicts. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) have been the elected markers to carry out cultivar identification studies. The main aim of this research was to define the minimum number of SSR markers to distinguish 80 durum wheat cultivars. Preliminary, an analysis of 11 SSRs informativeness was carried out on a subset of 28 durum wheat cultivars. The discriminating ability of each primer was estimated both with Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) and with Resolving power (Rp). Rp resulted the best parameter for assessing the discriminatory power of SSR primers (r=0.94***; P≤0.001). The marker Xwmc597 was able to discriminate all the 28 cultivars. Successively, 80 genotypes were analysed using three SSR markers with the higher Rp value. Two SSRs were able to distinguish all the 80 genotypes. Particularly, Xwmc597 was able to distinguish 69/80 genotypes while Xwmc415 identified the other cultivars. An identification key was obtained combining the data of these two markers.

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Abstract  

The degradation of a new thermoplastic poly(arylene)ether copolymer was carried out in both dynamic and isothermal heating conditions, under nitrogen flow and in a static air atmosphere. The measurements showed that the copolymer degraded through two stages in both investigated environments with the formation of a stable residue in N2 and complete mass loss in air. The apparent activation energy values associated with the degradation processes were evaluated. The obtained results suggested different degradation mechanisms between N2and air. Results were discussed and compared with those obtained for several polymers previously investigated.

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Abstract

In this study, a systematic study of the effect of the temperature on the density and surface tension of HMT (hexamethylentetramine) in water was developed. The density and surface tension were determined at temperatures of 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15 K. Precise data of surface tension have not been reported previously in literature. From the density measurements, the apparent molar and partial molar volumes were calculated. The apparent molar volume decreases with concentration, the molar partial volume increases with temperature. The surface tension of the aqueous solutions of HMT decreases with concentration. The excess surface concentration was calculated, the values increase with concentration, indicating that the amount of HMT that goes to the interface gas liquid increases at higher concentrations of HMT.

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Abstract

A reactive amino-ended toughener was blended with different commercial epoxy resins namely, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F, diglycidyl p-aminophenol and 1,5-naphthalenediamine as curing agent. The toughener was an aromatic amino-ended copolyethersulphone (coPES):poly(ether-sulphone)–poly(etherether-sulphone). The effect of the toughener on the thermal decomposition and char oxidation behaviour of the epoxy resins was studied by the simultaneous differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric techniques. The glass transition temperature (T g) as well as characteristic parameters of decomposition, initial decomposition temperature (T i) and temperature at maximum degradation rate (T m), in both inert and oxidative environments, were determined in order to verify the influence of toughener on the thermal degradation of the different epoxy systems. It was observed that the presence of coPES maintains the high level thermal stability of the resin and that the glass transition temperature increase with the toughener percentage.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: I. Blanco, L. Abate, F. A. Bottino, and P. Bottino

Abstract

Six polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSSs) with general formula R7 R′1 (SiO1.5)8, where R- was an isobutyl group and R′- a variously substituted phenyl group, namely hepta isobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (hib-POSS), were prepared and their composition was checked by elemental analysis and 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The degradation of compounds obtained was studied by simultaneous differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetry (DTA/TG) technique, in both inert (flowing nitrogen) and oxidative (static air atmosphere) environments, in order to draw useful information about their thermal stability. Experiments, performed in the 35–700 °C temperature range, showed different behaviour between the two used atmospheres. The formation of volatile compounds only, with an about complete mass loss, was observed under nitrogen, while a solid residue (≈40–50% in every case), due to the formation of SiO2, as indicated by the FTIR spectra, was obtained in static air atmosphere. The results obtained were discussed and compared, and the classifications of resistance to thermal degradation in the studied environments were made. A comparison between the thermal stabilities of hib-POSSs and analogous cyclopentyl POSSs previously studied was also performed.

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Abstract

Seven variously substituted derivatives of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSSs) with general formula R7R′1 (SiO1.5)8, where R- and R′- were a cyclopentyl and a substituted phenyl group, respectively, were prepared in this study, and their compositions were checked by elemental analysis, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The compounds obtained were studied by TG and DTA techniques, in both flowing nitrogen and static air atmospheres, to draw useful information about their resistance to thermal degradation. Experiments, performed in the 35–700 °C temperature range, showed different behaviours between the two used atmospheres. The formation of volatile compounds only, with a near-complete mass loss, was observed under nitrogen; by contrast, in oxidative environment, a solid residue (≈50% in every case) was obtained because of the formation of SiO2 as indicated by the FTIR spectra performed. The results obtained for the various compounds investigated were discussed and compared with each other, and heat resistance classifications in the studied environments were made.

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Abstract  

Styrene and montmorillonite organically modified with imidazolium surfactants (MMT) at various alkyl chain lengths (C12, C16 and C18) were used to prepare the corresponding PS/MMT/C12, PS/MMT/C16 and PS/MMT/C18 nanocomposites by in situ polymerization. XRD and TEM analyses evidenced the formation of both intercalated and exfoliated structures. The glass transition temperatures (T g) of nanocomposites, as well as that of neat PS, were obtained by DSC measurements. The thermal degradations were carried out in the scanning mode, in both inert and oxidative environments, and the initial temperatures of decomposition (T i) and the apparent activation energies of degradation (E a) were determined. Due to an oxidative degradation mechanism, the T i and E a values in air atmosphere were lower than those under nitrogen. The results indicated that nanocomposites are more thermally stable than polystyrene, and suggested an increasing degree of exfoliation as a function of alkyl chain length of surfactant, associated with enhancing thermal stability.

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During the last century wheat landraces were replaced by modern wheat cultivars leading to a gradual process of genetic erosion. Landraces genotyping and phenotyping are strategically useful, as they could broaden the genetic base of modern cultivars. In this research, we explored Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers diversity in a collection of common and durum wheats, including both landraces and Italian elite cultivars. A panel of 6,872 SNP markers was used to analyze the genetic variability among the accessions, using both the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and the Neighbour Joining clustering method. PCA analysis separated common wheat accessions from durum ones, and allowed to group separately durum landraces from durum elite cultivars. The Neighbour joining clustering validated PCA results, and moreover, separated common wheat landraces from common elite cultivars. The clustering results demonstrated that Italian durum landraces were poorly exploited in modern breeding programs. Combining cluster results with heterozygosity levels observed, it was possible to clarify synonymy and homonymy cases identified for Bianchetta, Risciola, Saragolla, Timilia and Dauno III accessions. The SNP panel was also used to detect the minimum number of markers to discriminate the studied accessions. A set of 33 SNPs were found to be highly informative and used for a molecular barcode, which could be useful for cultivar identification and for the traceability of wheat end-products.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: M. López, M. Blanco, A. Vazquez, J. Ramos, A. Arbelaiz, N. Gabilondo, J. Echeverría, and I. Mondragon

Abstract  

The curing kinetics of nanocomposites based on phenolic resol cured with triethylamine (TEA) containing different amounts of organic montmorillonite was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry. Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) model-free kinetics has been applied to correlate the dynamic cure behaviour in the presence of modified montmorillonite. The effect in the curing of the use of different clay modifiers has also been studied. A commercial clay with hydroxyl groups (Cloisite 30B) and a customized montmorillonite (PheMMT) whose reactive groups induce condensation reactions with the resol matrix have been used. Strong dependency of activation energy on apparent conversion has been observed for all compounds.

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