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After a decade of genetic manipulation and improvement, triticale stand out as a crop of high biomass and grain yield potential which generally surpass that of wheat. Its high productivity is most likely derived from high rates of carbon assimilation linked to stomatal physiology and probably low respiration rate. Being a derivative of rye, triticale has always been assumed to be relatively resistant to abiotic stress. The last review of triticale adaptation to abiotic stress as published by Jessop (1996) pointed at its general and specific fitness to harsh growing conditions. This review as based on additional data published in the last 20 years indicates that triticale retain good to excellent adaptation to conditions of limited water supply and problem soils which involve salinity, low pH, defined mineral toxicities and deficiencies and waterlogging. Despite the understandable expectations, freezing tolerance of triticale was not found to be up to the level of rye. The freezing tolerance of the rye complement in triticale is inhibited by unknown factors on the wheat parent genome. Any given triticale cultivar or selection cannot be taken a priori as being stress resistant. Research has repeatedly shown that triticale presented large genetic diversity for abiotic stress resistance and most likely this diversity has not yet been fully explored due to the very limited research and the small studied sample of the potential triticale germplasm. Triticale is a valuable stress tolerant cereal on its own accord and a potential genetic resource for breeding winter and spring cereals. Because of its high productivity and resilience it might become as important as wheat or better on a global scale if its grain technological quality will be improved to the level of wheat.

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Capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric air pollution by chemical elements were tested against epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) and Physcia adscendens (Fr.). Concentrations of 40 macro and trace elements were determined using epicadmium and instrumental NAA. The data obtained were processed using non-parametric tests. A good correlation was found between concentrations of majority of elements in bark and lichens. On the accumulation capability bark turned out to be competitive with both lichens examined. The main inorganic components of black poplar-tree bark were revealed. A substrate influence on the concentrations of some elements in epiphytic lichens was established. An optimized procedure of bark pre-irradiation treatment was suggested.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Harriet Beitscher-Campbell, Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Margaret A. Madigan, John Giordano, Rajendra D. Badgaiyan, Eric R. Braverman, Kristina Dushaj, Mona Li, and Mark S. Gold


The reward deficiency syndrome hypothesis posits that genes are responsible for reward dependence and related behaviors. There is evidence that both bulimia and anorexia nervosa, especially in women, have been linked to a lifetime history of substance use disorder (SUD). There are difficulties in accepting food as an addiction similar to drugs; however, increasingly neuroimaging studies favor such an assertion.

Case presentations

We are reporting the evidence of comorbidity of eating disorders with SUD found within these case presentations. We show 50 case reports derived from two independent treatment centers in Florida that suggest the commonality between food and drug addictions. In an attempt to provide data from this cohort, many participants did not adequately respond to our questionnaire.


We propose that dopamine agonist therapy may be of common benefit. Failure in the past may reside in too powerful D2 agonist activity leading to D2 receptor downregulation, while the new methodology may cause a reduction of “dopamine resistance” by inducing “dopamine homeostasis.” While this is not a definitive study, it does provide some additional clinical evidence that these two addictions are not mutually exclusive.


Certainly, it is our position that there is an overlap between food- and drug-seeking behavior. We propose that the studies focused on an effort to produce natural activation of dopaminergic reward circuitry as a type of common therapy may certainly be reasonable. Additional research is warranted.

Open access