It is known that in the Turkish soil Se and Zn concentrations are somewhatlower than in other countries. Lower zinc intake causes significant healthproblems mostly at rural areas. Six different population groups, total of55 subjects, consisting of children, people from rural areas, university studentsand staff members were selected and diet samples were collected by duplicateportion technique. Bread and flour samples were collected from six differentbakeries in Ankara. Zinc, selenium and other trace elements in these sampleswere analyzed mostly by INAA. Daily dietary zinc intake differs among differentgroups, ranging 5–13 mg Zn/day, and for all cases, it is lower thanRDA value of 15 mg Zn/day. Similarly, selenium daily intake is around 20–53µg Se/day, which is also lower than RDA value of 55–70 µgSe/day.
An instrumental neutron activation analysis method, using both reactor flux and epi-cadmium neutrons, has been developed for the determination of major, minor and trace elements in sub-seabed sediments. The method involves two different irradiations followed by three different counting periods using high-resolution Ge(Li) and low-energy photon detectors. The list of elements determined includes Ag, Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Hg, I, In, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Pt, Rb, Re, Rh, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, Tm, U, V. W, Yb, Zn, and Zr. The accuracy of the method has been evaluated by analyzing four different standard reference materials. The method has been applied to core samples collected from the Great Meteor East and the South Nares Abyssal Plain which are being evaluated as potential sites for the possible disposal of vitrified highly active waste.
A combination of instrumental and preconcentration neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods has been developed for multielement determination in acid rain. Concentrations of 24 elements have been measured in the particulate matter of rainwater by the instrumental NAA method which involves 3 irradiation and 4 counting periods. Trace elements in the soluble fraction of rainwater have been preconcentrated using Chelex-100 resin. Various factors that could influence the retention of elements on to the resin have been examined, and reagent and other blanks investigated in detail. Concentrations of 15 elements have been measured by directly irradiating the resins. A graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry method has been used for determining Cd and Pb levels in the soluble fraction. Precision and accuracy of the methods have been evaluated, and limits of detection and determination calculated. The methods have been applied to rainwater samples collected from 36 locations across Canada. Enrichment factors, interelement and inter-ion concentration correlation coefficients are discussed
Concentrations of up to 16 elements have been determined in subcellular fractions of bovine kidney using INAA methods. Levels of Rb and Se have been measured by a cyclic INAA method. A conventional INAA method consisting of 2 irradiations and 3 counting periods has been employed to determine the other elements. Accuracy of measurements has been evaluated by analyzing several standard reference materials. Trace element content of reagents used has been investigated in detail. Fresh samples of bovine kidney have been homogenized in a buffer containing sucrose and HEPES, and the homogeneate separated into nuclei, mitochondrial, lysosomal, microsomal and cytosol fractions by successive differential centrifugation. Concentrations of trace elements have been measured in these fractions using the INAA methods.
Neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods have been developed for the simultaneous determinations of multielement concentrations in various types of glass and their leachates. The epithermal instrumental NAA (EINAA) method involves the irradiation of samples in a Cd-shielded site for 2–5 min in order to determine levels of of up to 13 elements through their short-lived nuclides. Another 15 elements can be measured via their long-lived nuclides using conventional instrumental NAA (INAA). Accuracy of the methods have been evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials. The limits of detection for all elements are reported. The methods have been applied to sodium borosilicate and sodium calcium aluminosilicate glass samples in order evaluate their suitability as a host matrix for immobilizing high level radioactive waste.
The neutron spectra of one outer (#10) and two inner (#2 and #3) sites of the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor (DUSR) have been calibrated for the k0-based neutron activation analysis (k0-NAA). The parameters determined include the cadmium ratio (RCd), epithermal neutron flux shape factor (), subcadmium-to-epithermal neutron flux ratio (f), thermal-to-fast neutron flux ratio (fF), modified spectral index r()(Tn/T0)1/2, Westcott gLu(Tn)-factor, and absolute neutron temperature (Tn). The a-values of -0.0098±0.0045 and -0.0425±0.0047 and -0.0422±0.0053 and f-values of 57.1±2.2 and 18.8±0.4 and 18.9±0.4 were obtained for the sites #10, #2 and #3, respectively. The modified spectral index (MSI), gLu(Tn)-factor, and Tn have been determined for the handling of non 1/v (n,) reactions. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analyzing reference materials.