It is known that in the Turkish soil Se and Zn concentrations are somewhatlower than in other countries. Lower zinc intake causes significant healthproblems mostly at rural areas. Six different population groups, total of55 subjects, consisting of children, people from rural areas, university studentsand staff members were selected and diet samples were collected by duplicateportion technique. Bread and flour samples were collected from six differentbakeries in Ankara. Zinc, selenium and other trace elements in these sampleswere analyzed mostly by INAA. Daily dietary zinc intake differs among differentgroups, ranging 5–13 mg Zn/day, and for all cases, it is lower thanRDA value of 15 mg Zn/day. Similarly, selenium daily intake is around 20–53µg Se/day, which is also lower than RDA value of 55–70 µgSe/day.
The extraction behavior of Sm(III), Eu(III) and Dy(III) with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol (HA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) from aqueous NaClO4 solutions in the pH range 4–9 at 0.1M ionic strength has been studied. The equilibrium concentrations of Sm and Dy were measured using their short-lived neutron activation products,155Sm and165mDy, respectively. In the case of Eu, the concentrations were assayed through the152,154Eu radiotracer. The distribution ratios of these elements were determined as a function of pH, 1-nitroso-2-naphthol and TOPO concentrations. The extractions of Sm, Eu and Dy were found to be quantitative with MIBK solutions in the pH range 5.9–7.5, 5.6–7.5 and 5.8–7.5, respectively. Quantitative extraction of Eu was also obtained between pH 5.8 and 8.8 with chloroform solutions. The results show that these lanthanides (Ln) are extracted as LnA3 chelates with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol alone, and in the presence of TOPO as LnA3(TOPO) and LnA3(TOPO)2 adducts. The extraction constants and the adduct formation constants of these complexes have been calculated.
A method has been developed for the simultaneous preconcentration of Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Mn(II), Th(IV), U(VI), V(IV) and Zn(II) from 500–1000 ml of water samples by coprecipitation using a combination of 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol, ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and ammonium salt of N-nitroso-phenylhydroxylamine. The elemental contents have been measured by neutron activation analysis using different schemes of irradiation, decay and counting periods. Quantitative recoveries of all the above elements have been achieved between pH 6.0 and 7.2. For most of the elements, the enrichment factors are of the order of 104. The precision, expressed in terms of relative standard deviation, and accuracy of measurements are within ±5–10%. The detection limits are in the ppb range. The method has been applied to sea and drinking water samples and biological materials.
The equilibrium extraction behavior of Sm(III), Eu(III) and Dy(III) from aqueous NaClO4 solutions in the pH range of 4–9 at 0.1 M ionic strength into organic solutions of 1-nitroso-2-naphthol (HA) and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) has been studied. The equilibrium concentrations of Eu were assayed through the 344 keV photopeak of the152Eu radiotracer used. The concentrations of Sm and Dy were measured by irradiating one mL portions of the organic extract and analyzing the 104 and 108 keV photopeaks of the short-lived neutron activation products,155Sm and165mDy, respectively. Quantitative extraction of Eu with 5×10–2 M HA alone was obtained in the pH range of 6.7–7.8 with n-butanol, 7.4–8.5 with chloroform, 8.0–8.7 with ethyl acetate, 7.7–8.5 with isoamyl alcohol and 6.1–8.0 with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). But, Eu was extracted only to a maximum of 78% and 83% in the pH range of 8.3–8.9 and 7.4–8.1 with carbon tetrachloride and xylene, respectively. The extraction of Sm and Dy were found quantitative in the pH range of 6.3–7.0 and 6.6–7.1, respectively, with 5×10–2 M HA alone in MIBK solutions. The synergistic extraction of Eu was quantitative in the pH range of 6.6–9.8 with chloroform, 7.8–8.9 with ethyl acetate, 7.7–8.5 with isoamyl alcohol and 6.0–9.6 with MIBK when 1×10–2 M each of HA and Phen were employed. Sm and Dy were quantitatively extracted into MIBK solutions containing 5×10–2 M each of HA and Phen in the pH range 6.0–7.5 and 6.1–7.5, respectively. The distribution ratios of these lanthanides (Ln) were determined as a function of pH, and HA and Phen concentrations. The analysis of the data suggests that these Ln are extracted as LnA3 chelates when HA alone is used. In the presence of HA and Phen, both LnA3(Phen) and LnA3(Phen)2 adducts are formed only in the MIBK system while LnA3(Phen) complexes are the predominant ones in all other solvent systems studied. The extraction constants and the adduct formation constants of these complexes have been calculated.
Neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods have been developed for the simultaneous determinations of multielement concentrations in various types of glass and their leachates. The epithermal instrumental NAA (EINAA) method involves the irradiation of samples in a Cd-shielded site for 2–5 min in order to determine levels of of up to 13 elements through their short-lived nuclides. Another 15 elements can be measured via their long-lived nuclides using conventional instrumental NAA (INAA). Accuracy of the methods have been evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials. The limits of detection for all elements are reported. The methods have been applied to sodium borosilicate and sodium calcium aluminosilicate glass samples in order evaluate their suitability as a host matrix for immobilizing high level radioactive waste.
The complex formation of Eu(III) by bicarbonate/carbonate ions has been studied at 0.1 M ionic strength and 25°C using synergistic solvent extraction system of 1-nitroso-2-naphthol and 1,10-phenanthroline in chloroform. Concentrations of bicarbonate (5·10–3 to 1·10–1 M) and carbonate (5·10–4 to 1·10–2 M) ions in the aqueous phase have been varied in the pH range of 8.0 to 9.1 to simulate ground and natural water compositions. Under these conditions, the following species have been identified: Eu(HCO3)2+, Eu(HCO3)2+, Eu(CO3)+ and Eu(CO3)2–. Their conditional formation constants (log ) have been calculated as 4.77, 6.74, 6.92 and 10.42, respectively. These values suggest that the carbonate complexes of Eu(III) are highly stable.