Authors:M. Naghavi, A. Ebrahimi, M. Sabokdast, and M. Mardi
In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among 74 barley accessions; 15 landraces (Hordeum vulgare) and 59 wild accessions (twenty-one Hordeum spontaneum, ten Hordeum bulbosum, thirteen Hordeum murinum and fifteen Hordeum marinum). A total of 66 alleles were detected at 12 SSR loci, with an average of 5.5 alleles per locus in the entire samples. The average number of alleles (4.2) per locus was higher in H. vulgare and H. spontaneum, reflecting more genetic diversity within these two species compared with the other species. All index values of genetic diversity revealed that there was higher genetic diversity within H. vulgare landraces than within the wild species, indicating that cultivation unlikely to have caused a loss of genetic diversity in cultivated barley compared with its wild relatives. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 31% of the total observed variation was accounted for among species. Based on neighbor-joining clustering, the five species were classified into three main groups: (i) all accessions of H. marinum and H. bulbosum plus two accessions of H. murinum; (ii) H. vulgare and H. spontaneum accessions, in small, separated groups; and (iii) the remaining accessions of H. murinum. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) for SSR data also supported the neighbor-joining clustering. These results have important implications for barley germplasm characterization, improvement, molecular systematics and conservation.
Authors:S Nadjafi, S-A Ebrahimi, and N Rahbar-Roshandel
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of noscapine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from opium poppy, on oligodendrocyte during ischemia/reperfusion-induced excitotoxic injury. Changes in intracellular calcium levels due to chemical ischemia and nitric oxide (NO) production during ischemia/reperfusion were evaluated as the hallmarks of ischemia-derived excitotoxic event. OLN-93 cell line (a permanent immature rat oligodendrocyte) was used as a model of oligodendrocyte. 30- or 60-minute-oxygen—glucose deprivation/24 hours reperfusion were used to induce excitotoxicity. MTT (3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Ratiometric fluorescence microscopy using Ca2+-sensitive indicator Fura-2/AM was utilized to assess intracellular calcium levels. NO production was evaluated by Griess method. Noscapine (4 μM) significantly attenuated intracellular Ca2+ elevation (P < 0.001). Also, noscapine significantly decreased NO production during a 30-minute oxygen—glucose deprivation/reperfusion (P < 0.01). The inhibitory effect of noscapine (4 μM) on intracellular Ca2+ was greater than ionotropic glutamate receptors antagonists. Noscapine is protective against ischemia/reperfusion-induced excitotoxic injury in OLN-93 oligodendrocyte. This protective effect seems to be related to attenuation of intracellular Ca2+ overload and NO production.
Authors:A. Rouzrokh, S. Ebrahimi, N. Rahbr-Roshandel, and M. Mahmoudian
Mebudipine and dibudipine are two newly synthesized dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel blockers that have been shown to have considerable relaxant effects on vascular and atrial smooth muscle. The
half-lives of mebudipine and dibudipine are reported to be significantly longer than that of nifedipine. In this study, we investigated the effects of mebudipine and dibudipine on voltage-activated Ca
channels on differentiated PC12 cells and compared their potencies to amlodipine. Our results point to absence of voltage-activated Ca
currents in undifferentiated PC12 cells. It is also concluded that mebudipine and dibudipine, like amlodipine are L-type calcium channel blockers. When tested in a range of 10–100 μM, mebudipine is at least as potent as amlodipine in inhibition of peak Ba
currents in differentiated PC12 cells while dibudipine is significantly less potent compared to amlodipine and mebudipine.
Authors:S. Mirshojaei, M. Gandomkar, R. Najafi, S. Sadat Ebrahimi, M. Babaei, A. Shafiei, and M. Talebi
Cefotaxime, a cephalosporin antibiotic, used to treat bacterial infections was investigated to label with 99mTc. Labeling was performed using sodium dithionite as a reducing agent at 100 °C for 10 min and radiochemical analysis involved
ITLC and HPLC methods. The stability of labeled antibiotic was checked in the presence of human serum at 37 °C up to 24 h.
The maximum radiolabeling yield was 92 ± 2%. Bacterial binding assay was performed with S. aureus and the in vivo distribution was studied in mice. Images showed minimal accumulation in non-target tissues, with an average
target/non-target ratio of 2.89 ± 0.58.
Authors:N. Sadeghzadeh, M. Gandomkar, R. Najafi, M. Shafiei, S. Sadat Ebrahimi, A. Shafiee, and B. Larijani
A variety of human tumors like prostate and breast cancer express bombesin receptors. Due to this a new bombesin analogue
was labeled with 99mTc via HYNIC and tricine as a coligand and investigated further. Peptide was synthesized on a solid phase using Fmoc strategy.
Labeling with 99mTc was performed at 100 °C for 10 min and radiochemical analysis involved ITLC and HPLC methods. The stability of radiopeptide
was checked in the presence of human serum at 37 °C up to 24 h. Internalization was studied with the human GRP receptor cell
line PC-3. The biodistribution was studied in mice. Labeling yield of >98% was obtained corresponding to a specific activity
of ~80.9 GBq/μmol. Radiopeptide internalization into PC-3 cells was moderate and specific (10.7 ± 1.2% at 4 h). A high and
specific GRP receptor expressing mouse tumor and pancreas uptake (1.12 ± 0.08 and 1.04 ± 0.11% ID/g after 1 h respectively)
was also determined.