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  • Author or Editor: A. Fonseca x
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In the collections accumulated within the framework of the Flora of Guerrero Project appeared a remarkable Psychotria taxon belonging to the large and rather polymorphic species of P. horizontalis Sw. but differs from both known subspecies of it, which are the type and the subsp. glaucescens (Kunth) Borhidi, with discolourous leaves and completely glabrous inflorescences. The authors consider this new taxa as a third subspecies under the name P. horizontalis subsp. glaucina Borhidi et R. M. Fonseca.

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Acetylsalicylic acid is the most widely used drug as antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory agent and for secondary prevention of thrombotic phenomena in the heart, brain and peripheral circulation. Drugs can modify the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc). This work has evaluated the effect of in vivo treatment with acetylsalicylic acid on the in vitro labeling of the blood constituents with 99m Tc. Wistar rats were treated with different doses (1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 mg/kg) of acetylsalicylic acid during 1 hour. At higher dose used (6.0 mg/kg) animals were treated during different period of time (0.25, 1.0 and 4.0 hours). Animals treated with physiologic saline solution were used as control. After the labeled process; plasma (P), blood cells (BC), insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC) and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC) fractions were separated. Afterwards, the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) in each fraction was calculated. The treatment during 1 hour with acetylsalicylic acid at higher dose has significantly (p<0.05) modified the fixation of 99m Tc on blood cells. Considering the results, we suggest that acetylsalicylic acid used at therapeutic doses may interfere with the nuclear medicine procedures related to these blood constituents.

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Authors: Gabrielle Souza Rocha, A. Fonseca, Michelle Rodrigues, F. Dantas, A. Caldeira-de-Araujo and R. Santos

The aim of this work was to evaluate, by comet assay, the possible inducing of DNA lesions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rats subjected to acute or chronic food deprivation. Wistar male rats were subjected to 72 h of partial (50%), or total acute food deprivation, and then allowed to recover for different time periods (24, 48 and 72 h). In other experiments, comet scores were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rats subjected to chronic food deprivation (25% and 50%) for 50 days. Blood aliquots were obtained before, during and after food deprivation. Comet assay was carried out, the comet units photographed and scored (class 0 up to 3). Acute and chronic food-deprived rats presented peripheral blood mononuclear cells with DNA lesions (comet classes 1, 2 and 3) and a significant increase ( p < 0.05) in the number of comet units compared with its basal level. The increase was proportional to acute food deprivation time, but after being taken off, it progressively returned to basal level after 48 h (partial group) or 72 h (total group). Chronic food-deprived rats presented a progressive increase of comet score up to 5 days, and a decrease thereafter to reach a basal level. Possible mechanisms of DNA lesions are discussed.

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Authors: R. López-Fonseca, I. Landa, M. A. Gutiérrez-Ortiz and J. R. González-Velasco

Summary Non-isothermal thermogravimetric data were used to evaluate the Arrhenius parameters (activation energy and the pre-exponential factor) of the combustion of two carbonaceous materials, selected as diesel soot surrogates. The paper reports on the application of model-free isoconversional methods (Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Kissinger methods) for evaluating the activation energy of the combustion process. On the other hand, by means of the compensation relation between E and lnA, which was established by the model-dependent Coats-Redfern method, the value of the pre-exponential factor was estimated from the known value of the model-independent activation energy.

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Acetaminophen (AAP), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and dipyrone (DIP) are antipyretic and analgesics drugs that have wide use in health sciences. Some drugs can modify the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m (99mTc). This work has evaluated the effect of AAP, ASA and DIP on the labeling of the blood elements with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with different concentrations of the drugs before the 99mTc-labeled process. Plasma (P), blood cells (BC), insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC) and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC) fractions were separated and percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) in each fraction was determined. Data have shown that the antipyretic drugs used in this study did not significantly modify the fixation of 99mTc on the blood elements when the experiments were carried out with the doses usually used in human beings. Although the experiments were carried out with rats, it is possible to suggest that AAP, ASA or DIP should not interfere with the procedures in nuclear medicine involving the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc

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Authors: J. Díaz De León, R. Escoppinichi, R. Zavala-Fonseca, T. Castellanos, M. Röder and A. Mujeeb-Kazi

To determine limits of tolerance, provide information about genetic diversity, and explore potential as progenitors for a salt-tolerant wheat improvement program, we collected several landraces and genotypes reputed to be salt-tolerant. Salt tolerance was tested by irrigation with a diluted solution of seawater with 12 dS.m −1 electrical conductivity for two years. Phenotypic parameters of percent of emergence, days to flowering to spike emergence, and physiological maturity were not significantly affected. Leaf area was sensitive to salt stress and inhibited about 30%. Plant height was inhibited 30%, while spike length and number of grains per spike were not. Total yield of Shorawaki and Kharchia landraces confirmed their reputation as salt-tolerant. Cultivars Mepuchi, Pericu, Calafia, WH157, and SNH-1 were inhibited at a moderate level of tolerance; cultivars Cochimí, Lu26S, and KRL 1–4 were inhibited, as was the control cultivar Oasis by up to 50%. To amplify microsatellites from genomes A, B, and D, 33 pairs of primers were used. The microsatellite WMS169-6A was highly polymorphic, with 10 different alleles distinguishing the genotype set. Also, the short arm of chromosome 4D microsatellites were amplified and found to be monomorphic, which suggests highly conserved alleles. The other microsatellites had variable polymorphism. In total, 120 alleles were obtained and used to define genetic diversity. The resulting dendrogram showed that landraces Shorawaki and Kharchia are distantly grouped from all other cultivars, as well as the cultivar Chinese Spring. Strikingly, KRL1–4, a derivative of Kharchia, did not show a close relationship to its source. The geographic origin did not influence pair-wise combinations. However, pedigree did influence pair-wise combinations.

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Abstract  

The thermal behavior of the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and nickel oxide (YSZ–NiO) composite mixtures with the addition of graphite, multiwall carbon nanotubes and functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes was studied. The YSZ–NiO composite is the precursor of the YSZ–Ni anode of solid oxide fuel cells. The anode exhibits a porous structure, which is usually obtained by the addition of carbon containing pore formers. Thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction evidenced that the properties of carbonaceous materials (C) and atmosphere have a strong influence on the thermal evolution of the reactions taking place upon heating the anode precursor. The dependence of both the carbon content and the chemical nature of the ceramic matrix on the thermal behavior of the composite were investigated. The discussed results evidenced important features for optimized processing of the anode.

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Abstract  

The divalent copper, nickel, cobalt and trivalent chromium, molybdenium and iron chelate compounds derived from bis(acetylacetone) ethylenediimine were grafted on activated silica gel using a batch process in methanolic solution. The sequence of the maximum retention capacity was Cr(III)>Mo(III)>Fe(III)>Co(II)>Ni(II)>Cu(II). Calorimetric titration was employed to study the interaction of activated silica gel with these series of metal chelate compounds. Exothermic enthalpic results were obtained throughout all interactions process. The spontaneity of these systems was reflected in negative and positive free Gibbs energy from entropic values.

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Authors: Luiza Arakaki, Maria da Fonseca, J. Espínola, A. Wanderley, E. Martins, T. Arakaki and C. Airoldi

Abstract  

The reaction of cyclic ethylene sulfide with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane resulted in a new silylating agent, which was anchored onto a silica surface via the sol-gel procedure using hydrochloric acid or ammonium hydroxide as acid or base catalysts, respectively. Both organofunctionalized surfaces have the ability to adsorb divalent cations from aqueous nitrate solution. Through calorimetric titrations, the thermodynamic data of cation-basic center interactions were obtained. Exothermic enthalpy values were obtained for all interaction processes. The calculated free Gibbs energy is in agreement with the spontaneity of the reactions and the positive entropy values for all reactions are favorable for these systems.

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