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  • Author or Editor: A. Garg x
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Abstract  

Gamma-ray induced decomposition of binary mixtures of potassium nitrate with 90, 70, 50, 30 and 10 mol% SiO2, Al2O3, MnO2, V2O5, La2O3, CeO2, Sm2O3, Eu2O3, Gd2O3 and Dy2O3 has been studied at different doses up to 500 kGy. Radiolytic decomposition of the nitrate is affected by the concentration of the oxide in the binary mixture as well as by the absorbed dose. The enhancement is up to 103 times at 90 mol% of the additive.G(NO2 ) values calculated on the basis of electron fraction of the nitrate decrease with the increasing concentration of the nitrate. A comparison ofG(NO2 ) for 90 mol% oxides shows decreasing trend as Gd2O3>Sm2O3≈Dy2O3> Eu2O3>CeO2>Al2O3>V2O5>SiO2>MnO2. ESR and TL measurements suggest the formation of radical species which interact with the radical species of nitrate causing enhanced decomposition by energy transfer mechanism.

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Abstract  

Gamma — radiolytic decomposition of sodium and potassium nitrates and its admixtures with respective cyanide and borate additives has been studied over a wide absorbed dose range from 675 to 500 kGy. The decomposition of nitrate increases with the nature and concentration of the additive in the admixture. The enhancement is more significant at >80 mol% of the additive.G(NO 2 ) values, calculated on the basis of electron fraction of the nitrate salt, decrease with increasing concentration of the nitrate. ESR spectral studies suggest the formation of radical species such as BO4 and BO 3 2− etc, in borates whereas in case of cyanide additive FH centres are produced. The radical species and colour centres so produced may then transfer their energy to nitrate and cause enhancement in decomposition. A comparison with other oxyanion additives shows thatG(NO 2 ) values decrease in the order PO 4 3− >B4O 7 2− >SO 4 2− >CO 3 2− . Similarly, the nature of the cation also affects the decomposition.

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Abstract  

Gamma-ray induced decomposition of some divalent nitrates, viz. Mg(NO3)2·6H2O, Ca(NO3)2·4H2O, Sr(NO3)2, Ba(NO3)2, Zn(NO3)2·6H2O, Cd(NO3)2·4H2O, Hg(NO3)2·2H2O, Mn(NO3)2·4H2O, Cu(NO3)2·3H2O and trivalent nitrates, viz. Al(NO3)3·9H2O, Fe(NO3)3·9H2O, Cr(NO3)3·9H2O, Y(NO3)3·6H2O, In(NO3)3·3H2O, La(NO3)3·6H2O, Ce(NO3)3·6H2O, Pr(NO3)3·6H2O, Bi(NO3)3·5H2O has been studied in solid state at room temperature. G(NO 2 ) values (after applying appropriate dose correction) have been found to vary in the range 0.12–3.16 and 0.069–2.15 for divalent and trivalent nitrates respectively. G'-values were calculated by dividing G by the ratio of number of electrons in nitrate ion to the total number of electrons in the nitrate salt. Cation size, its polarizing power, available free space in the crystal lattice and the number and location of water molecules seem to play a dominant role in radiolytic decomposition. For Zn, Sr, In, La and Ce nitrates dose variation studies have been carried out.

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Abstract  

Mössbauer isomer shift // and quadrupole splitting /EQ/ values in a series of isostructural compounds correlate well to give linear relationship provided the sign of electric field gradient /EFG/ is assigned to the EQ. The correlation has been used in predicting the sign of EFG for some monosubstituted pentacyanoferrate/II/ complexes. Usefulness of such correlations and its limitations are presented.

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Abstract  

The -ray induced decomposition of several inorganic nitrates CsNO3, TlNO3, Mg/NO3/2.6H2O, Ca/NO3/2.4H2O, Hg/NO3/2, Hg/NO3/2.2H2O, Pb/NO3/2 and Al/NO3/3.9H2O has been studied at an absorbed dose of {5 Mrads. G/NO 2 / is affected by the outer cation and depends mainly on its valency and ionic size. G/NO 2 / for hydrated mercuric nitrate is always higher as compared to that for the anhydrous mercuric nitrate at various doses. Water of crystallization might provide extra factors to facilitate the decomposition of the hydrated nitrate compared to that for the anhydrous salts. In most cases G/NO 2 / decreases exponentially with dose but in cases of CsNO3, Mg/NO3/2.6H2O and Al/NO3/3.9H2O it varies linearly.

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Abstract  

A RNAA method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of Rb and Cs in geological samples. The method is based on precipitation with sodium tetraphenylborate followed by NaI(Tl) gamma spectrometry. Three mica dust particulate samples and two USGS standard rocks, BCR-1 and W-1 were analyzed. Dipicrylamine (DPA) and 2-thenoyl-trifluoroacetone (TTA) in nitrobenzene were also used for solvent extraction. The precipitation method is better than solvent extraction.

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Abstract  

There has been an increasing awareness conceming the adequacy of trace elements in diet as their deficiency or excess may cause abnormal changes in the biochemical processes. Typical Indian vegetarian diet and dietary components such as cereals, grains, pulses, vegetables and spices have been analysed for 19 elements (Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th and Zn) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Several Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analysed for quality assurance. Based on the elemental contents, the daily dietary intake has been calculated and the data compared with those from other countries, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and permissible body burden. It has been observed that, although vegetarian, the Indian diet has an adequate content of essential trace elements compared to non-vegetarian oriental (Japan and Taiwan) and western (Germany, Denmark and USA) diets.

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Abstract  

A series of carboxylatoferrate (III) complexes have been synthesized with monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids. Mössbauer spectra of all the complexes exhibit quadrupole doublets with EQ=0.36–0.88 mm s–1, suggesting a distorted octahedral geometry. The complexes start decomposing at 100°C and finally yield a constant weight at <500°C. Mössbauer spectral studies of the intermediates and final products after heating at different temperatures yield a complex pattern, suggesting the formation of one or two magnetic phases. Mössbauer spectra of the final products show two, six or eight lines with a central doublet, all indicating the formation of -Fe2O3 of different particle sizes. It is proposed that decarboxylation occurs first, followed by the loss of one or two ligands, depending on the nature of the carboxylate and the heating tempeature. The complex of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid shows an anomalous behavior.

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Abstract  

Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis /INAA/ has been employed for the determination of 15 major, minor and trace elements in human and animal blood samples. Dry whole blood samples along with NBS and IAEA standards were irradiated for 5 min, 1 h, 5 h and 10 h with reactor thermal neutrons and counted using high resolution -spectrometry at successive intervals. Data for a new IAEA proposed CRM Mixed Human Diet /H-9/ is reported.

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