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  • Author or Editor: A. Geösel x
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Ganoderma is a worldwide distributed genus of polyporoid fungi causing white-rot. The sporocarps of these species are popular drug in the traditional medicine of the Far East. Although several species are proven to contain chemicals of different biological activities, only Ganoderma lucidum is cultivated on the large scale. It is an important goal of mushroom growing to involve genetically diverse strains in this field of industry (e.g. for Agaricus, Pleurotus), thus the range of cultivated Ganoderma species should also be broadened in the future. Within the Carpathian Basin, we have the possibility to isolate strains from 6 species beside G. lucidum: G. adspersum, G. applanatum (syn. G. lipsiense), G. carnosum (syn. G. atkinsonii), G. cupreolaccatum (G. pfeifferi), G. resinaceum and G. valesiacum. In the present review, by describing the taxonomical status and the ecological characteristic of the species, we depict the biological background of the medicinal potential, as well as the cultivation possibilities (both sporocarp production and liquid mycelia cultures) of these species.

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From the nineteen-nineties, cobweb disease caused serious losses for the mushroom sector in Europe, in the USA, and in Australia (Fletcher & Gaze, 2008), so it is one of the most notable fungal infections of cultivated white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). The aim of this study was to identify cobweb disease (Cladobortyum dendroides) caused cap spotting and brownish rot on the mushroom sporocarp, and to find a proper discrimination method in the case of this infection.Fruiting body samples were divided into 4 groups, a control one and three others treated with different chemicals that are tested against fungal infections. The groups were subdivided into 2 portions and the first was infected with cobweb disease. Images of the caps were recorded and their hyperspectral images were acquired in the wavelength range of 900–1700 nm.On the hyperspectral images infected and healthy areas were selected, on these average spectra differences were found around the known water peaks (1200 and 1450 nm). The spatial distribution of the water content can be used for the detection of the spoilage, because the infected areas showed different reflection values at these water absorption peaks.Support Vector Machine method was applied successfully to discriminate between the infected and control groups and Monte Carlo cross-validation was carried out.

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The king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) is becoming more and more popular amongst the producers due to its excellent taste and relatively easy cultivation technology. Though investigations aiming to involve the mushroom in industrial cultivation had started in Hungary already in the 1950s, significant efforts were not made until 2002. In contrast to this, the volume of production in Europe and the United States has been growing continuously in the last decade. Although the species have been subjected to some taxonomical investigations, there are still a lot of contradictions in the taxonomic positioning of the P. eryngii species complex. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and taxonomic relationships among P. eryngii strains by using the RAPD-PCR method. Fifteen strains were analysed from our collection that represents mostly the Eastern-Hungarian habitats. Twenty-five random decamer primers were tested in the preliminary experiments and six were chosen that were used for binary coding. A neighbour-joining tree prepared from this matrix shows the coherence among the taxonomic relations and production sites of the potentially cultivable Hungarian strains.

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In this study five commercial product types (frozen sweet corn, fresh champignon, hazelnut chocolate bar, non-carbonated bottled water and Sedum species) were evaluated by two different sensory methods to determine how does the brand/type/variety knowledge influence the sensory perception based product judgement. One of the used methods is the blind sensory test where the samples have random 3-digits code and the remarkable signs are eliminated. The second is the test with knowledge of brand where the participants can see the brands and the package of the products. After the evaluation one-way ANOVA was conducted to identify the non-significant attributes. As the second step of the analysis least square difference method was used to determine which attributes are different at 95% or 99% significance level. During data analysis the common profile plots of the samples were created. The results of the study showed that there is only one sample (hazelnut chocolate bar) where significant difference appeared between the methods used.

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Mycoviruses are known to infect fungi of different habitats and life style. Some of them, like the Mushroom Virus X (MVX) complex, cause abnormal development of fruiting bodies and severe yield losses in mushroom cultivation. Most mycoviruses have a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, therefore dsRNA-detection is frequently used as a first step to identify virus infection. In relation with MVX 23 dsRNAs species have been described, occurring in variable number and combination in diseased mushrooms. The aim of our experiments was to find out whether dsRNA-immunoblotting can be used to detect dsRNA in small samples of cultivated A. bisporus varieties and of wild growing Agaricus species. We found that by immunoblotting, the same dsRNA species were detected in apparently healthy cultivated champignon fruiting bodies and in MVX-infected reference samples, respectively, as by conventional CF11 chromatography, but for immunoblotting a much smaller sample size was needed. In two out of three deformed fruit bodies of cultivated A. bisporus from Hungary we detected a 4.1 kbp dsRNA species which was also present in the MVX infected reference samples. Diverse and variable dsRNA patterns were observed in apparently healthy samples of 12 wild growing Agaricus species, indicating that extreme care should be taken when non-cultivated Agaricus is used for breeding new varieties. Non-sterile cultures and environmental mushroom specimens are fairly often mixed with parasitic and endofungal organisms, therefore, we also tested fungi isolated from mushroom cultures. Here again, 1–7 dsRNA species were found in extracts of Trichoderma and Dactylium isolates and of Mycogone-infected sporophores. Our results demonstrate clearly that dsRNAs from very different origins can be present in cultivated champignon and support the view that the MVX symptom-associated dsRNAs are probably of polyphyletic origin and do not represent one defined virus.

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In the past decades many papers were published on the nutritional effect and bioactive components of edible mushrooms. The fungi are able to accumulate secondary metabolites, for example, phenolic compounds, polyketides, terpenes and steroids. In case of mushrooms the button mushrooms are preferred in the Eastern-European region. Therefore white and cream type button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and different A. subrufescens (syn. A. blazei) cultivars were cropped, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) were measured in two years of experiments. To develop the description method of mushroom products, software-supported profile analysis was applied to characterize them. The aim of the research was to compare the sensory profiles of the samples, and to find those characteristics, they actually differ in.

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