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In the field of product development and quality assurance flavour lexicons are widely used. These systems include the definition of all attributes and the relevant reference materials or reference samples. With the application of these lexicons more reliable results can be acquired and it can be very helpful to the assessors in sensory analysis. The main purpose of our further research was to establish a flavour language for table margarines. A well-trained margarine expert panel was already established and also an appropriate sensory method (QDA) was chosen. However, the applied sample presentation design also has a strong influence on the results. In this study the effect of two types of test protocols were compared on the performance of the expert panel. The results of the sensory panel were monitored using univariate (F-plot, MSE-plot, p*MSE-plot) and multivariate statistical methods (Tucker-1 correlation loading plot) by PanelCheck. With application of the side-by-side protocol (SBS) the panel agreement and the ability to discriminate the samples and the repeatability of the panel were considerably improved against using the sequential monadic presentation protocol (SM). The explained variance of the first occasion was 74.8% and in case of the application of SM was 55% for PC1.

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In vitro investigations for the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Myrtilli folium-, Phaseoli fructus sine seminibus- and a drug mixture (Equiseti herba, Myrtilli folium, Phaseoli fructus sine seminibus, Urticae folium) extracts showed antioxidant (LPO inhibitory and chain-breaking antioxidant) activity and free radical (superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical) scavenging effect. The extracts inhibited lipid peroxidation induced enzymatically by adding NADPH and non-enzymatically by adding Fe2+ in brain microsomes and in brain homogenates, respectively. The extracts reduced the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), which showed chain-breaking antioxidant activity. The extracts scavenged superoxide radicals (O2-·) by inhibiting the reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium evoked by phenazine methosulphate. In addition, the extracts inhibited Fenton-reagent (Fe2+ and H2O2) induced deoxyribose degradation, therefore, it was concluded that the extracts have hydroxyl radical (OH·) scavenging property.

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In this study five commercial product types (frozen sweet corn, fresh champignon, hazelnut chocolate bar, non-carbonated bottled water and Sedum species) were evaluated by two different sensory methods to determine how does the brand/type/variety knowledge influence the sensory perception based product judgement. One of the used methods is the blind sensory test where the samples have random 3-digits code and the remarkable signs are eliminated. The second is the test with knowledge of brand where the participants can see the brands and the package of the products. After the evaluation one-way ANOVA was conducted to identify the non-significant attributes. As the second step of the analysis least square difference method was used to determine which attributes are different at 95% or 99% significance level. During data analysis the common profile plots of the samples were created. The results of the study showed that there is only one sample (hazelnut chocolate bar) where significant difference appeared between the methods used.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: V. Losó, A. Tóth, A. Gere, J. Heszberger, G. Székely, Z. Kókai, and L. Sipos

According to international studies the consumer preference of apple varieties is defined by the flavour and texture and the consumers’ opinion about the heavily sour character, the mushy texture and the barely chewable peel is negative. However, the preference level and nutritional values of the apple juices are determined by the variety used, the maturity level and the processing of the fruits. In our study we conducted the external and internal preference mapping of two apple juices with 100% fruit content according to the industrial practice. It propounded several questions about the method of the preference mapping which were the following: product specific training of the assessors, panel performance monitoring, number of samples, representativity, scale use and marking, reasons of the singular matrix, segmentation method, segmentation criterion, power of the paired post-hoc analysis, number of the principal components (PC’s), etc. Finding the answers of the questions above it is possible to establish a good preference mapping practice.

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This study investigates the relationship between gazing behaviour and choice decision in multialternative forced choice tasks, focusing on the consistency across different food product groups including apple, beer, bread, chocolate, instant soup, salad, sausage, and soft drink. Each choice task consisted of pictures of four alternatives, similar in familiarity and liking ratings, of the corresponding product group. A Tobii T60 eye-tracker was used to present the stimuli and to analyse the gazing behaviour of 59 participants during decision-making.

The results showed strong correlations between choice and gazing behaviour, in forms of more fixation counts, longer total dwell duration, and more dwell counts on the chosen alternative. No correlations for first fixation, time to first fixation, and first fixation duration were observed. These results were consistent across the eight tested product groups.

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