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  • Author or Editor: A. Goswami x
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Abstract  

Adsorption of uranium, as UO2 2+, and thorium, as Th4+, has been studied using a modified fly ash bed. Effects of pH and various ions like La3+, Fe3+, Ce4+, SiO3 2- etc., have been examined. Synthetic mixtures of UO2 2+ and Th4+ in different concentrations were passed through the bed and eluted separately with various selective reagents viz. ammonium carbonate, sodium carbonate and acetic acid-sodium hydroxide buffer. Separations of these elements at ppm level are shown to be very effective. The separation of uranium and thorium in the presence of lanthanides in monazite sand has been studied successfully. In the analysis of monazite sand, the oxalate precipitation has been avoided. The method is simple and of very low cost. The modified fly ash bed can also be used to remove uranium from contaminated water.

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Abstract  

The adsorption of lanthanum and cerium on modified fly ash bed has been studied. The effect of pH on the adsorption of both lanthanum and cerium by the bed material has been discussed. The exchange capacities of lanthanum and cerium have been determined. The method has been applied to monazite sand solution. The elution of both lanthanum(III) and cerium(IV) was studied using buffer and suitable eluting agent. The process is simple and may be considered as a low cost-methodology for separation of lanthanum and cerium.

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Abstract  

An internal mono-standard method has been proposed for multi element analysis. This method gives the relative concentration of the elements in a sample of non-standard shape and size. It utilizes an in-situ relative efficiency calibration and hence, does not need the cumbersome procedures, otherwise required to correct for -attenuation in the sample. To validate this method, the relative concentration of elements in IAEA RM's SL-3 and Soil-7 were analyzed with sample amounts ranging from a few milligrams to grams. The samples were counted in different non-specific geometries. The results are in good agreement with the recommended values, suggesting that this methodology could be applied for the analysis of samples of non-standard size and shape, and in principle, for the analysis of large samples.

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Abstract  

Cumulative yields of short-lived ruthenium isotopes in the thermal neutron induced fission of235U,235U and239Pu have been determined using a fast radiochemical separation technique followed by gamma spectrometry. The cumulative yields of107Ru and103Ru in233U (nth, f) and107Ru and109Ru in239Pu (nth, f) are determined for the first time. The measured cumulative yields are converted to chain yields assuming normal charge distribution systematics for comparison with the literature data on chain yields.

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Abstract  

Present status of work on charge and mass distribution in medium energy fission of compound nuclei produced using various target projectile combinations is reviewed. Systematics of charge distribution parameters and their dependence on excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus is presented. Variation of mass distribution with excitation energy and mass and charge of the fissioning nucleus is discussed. Qualitative explanation of the data has been sought in terms of existing theories of fission. The importance of charge and mass distribution studies in identifying the different reaction mechanisms in heavy ion induced reaction is highlighted.

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Abstract  

Partitioning of plutonium from uranium is an important step in the reprocessing of spent fuel by PUREX process of solvent extraction using 30% TBP-dodecane. This is achieved by selectively reducing the Pu in solution to least extractable trivalent state by uranous nitrate as the reductant. The latter is conventionally produced by electrolytic reduction of uranyl ion in presence of hydrazine nitrate as uranous nitrate stabilizer using Pt-coated titanium as the anode. The anode plating wears out after period of operation thus affecting the process efficiency and hence the quality control testing of platinum plated electrode becomes important. This article describes the use of Beta backscattering method with strontium-90 radioisotope as non-destructive testing tool for measuring the coating thickness of the sample Ti electrode. The surface characteristics and coating morphology were also examined by scanning electron microscope and the micrographs are presented.

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Abstract  

Apparent mass method (Venkataraman and Croft, Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A 505:527, <cite>2003</cite>), initially standardized for the assay of Pu (Agarwal et al., J Nucl Mater 651:386, <cite>2007</cite>) has been used to get Pu amount in empty stainless steel boxes generally used for storing and transferring plutonium oxide powders. The results have been compared with the neutron coincidence counting results and have been found to match well. The advantage of the method is that it can be used for any sample with nonstandard geometry and with uncertain source distribution.

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Abstract  

An activated concrete sample was counted at different source to detector distances with CdZnTe and HPGe detectors. The experimental count rates for different radionuclides were converted to dose rate using Monte Carlo code and compared with the Measured dose rates obtained using digital survey meter. The results agreed well for both the detectors. This indicates that CdZnTe detector having a better portability but poorer resolution than HPGe detector can be effectively used for online monitoring of radioactivity as well as dose rate calculations.

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Abstract  

The true coincidence summing (TCS) effect on the full energy peak (FEP) efficiency calibration of an HPGe detector has been studied as a function of sample-to-detector distance using multi-gamma sources. Analytical method has been used to calculate coincidence correction factors for 152Eu, 133Ba, 134Cs and 60Co for point and extended source geometry at close sample-to-detector distance. Peak and total efficiencies required for this method have been obtained by using MCNP code by using the optimized detector geometry. The correction factors have also been obtained experimentally. The analytical and the experimental correction factors have been found to match within 1–5%. The method has been applied to obtain the activity of the radionuclides (106Ru, 125Sb, 134Cs and 144Ce) present in a fission product sample.

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Abstract  

Monte Carlo simulation is important to get efficiencies for cases where the experimental efficiencies are difficult to get such as for samples with nonstandard geometries and for large samples. In this paper, efficiency of the HPGe detector, routinely used in our lab for a variety of samples, has been computed for point source geometry and its parameters has been optimized to match MCNP and experimental efficiencies within 5% at different sample to detector distances. This optimized geometry was then validated by efficiency transfer to other geometries.

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