A *-compactification of a T1 quasi-uniform space (X,U) is a compact T1 quasi-uniform space (Y,V) that has a T(V*)-dense subspace quasi-isomorphic to (X,U), where V* denotes the coarsest uniformity finer than V.In this paper we characterize all Wallman type compactifications of a T1 topological space in terms of the *-compactification of its point symmetric totally bounded transitive compatible quasi-uniformities. We deduce that the *-compactification of the Pervin quasi-uniformity of any normal T1 topological space X is exactly the Stone-Cech compactification of X. We also obtain a characterization of those Hausdorff compactifications of a given space, which are of Wallman type.
Increased delay discounting is associated with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Although BED and obesity frequently co-occur, the neural mechanisms underlying delay discounting in these conditions remain poorly understood.
Thirtyfive women with obesity, including 10 participants with obesity and BED and 31 controls completed a monetary delay discounting task during functional magnetic resonance imaging.
We identified that increased discounting rates were associated with decreased activity in the left anterior insula in participants with obesity compared to controls when choosing immediate rewards over delayed rewards (PFWE < 0.05). An exploratory analysis comparing the BED subsample to the other groups did not detect significant differences.
Discussion and conclusions
Our findings suggest decreased activity in the anterior insula may underlie heightened delay discounting in individuals with obesity, contributing the probability of choosing immediate rewards over delayed rewards based on emotional states. Future studies including larger, more diverse samples are required to confirm these effects.