Our aim was to determine the effect of using sodium and potassium nitrate on residual nitrate and nitrite levels of pastirma and to compare degradation of these curing agents. For this purpose, longissimus dorsi muscules were used, and three different groups were formed during salting. The first group (control) was salted only with NaCl at 10% proportion of meat weight. In the second and third group, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate were added to the salt at 0.1% proportion of meat weight, respectively. After production process of about twenty days, pastirama samples were stored at 4±1 °C in vacuum package for 60 days. During the storage period residual nitrate and nitrite contents were examined. Residual nitrate and nitrite contents of pastirma samples were determined to be 51.66-203.08 ppm, 22.13-51.06 ppm on the first day of storage and 25.53-38.80 ppm, 3.20-9.51 ppm on the 60 th day of storage, respectively. Residual nitrate and nitrite contents of the third group cured with potassium nitrate were found to be lower than the second group cured with sodium nitrate. In conclusion, using sodium and potassium nitrate at this level as curing agents in pastirma production had no effect on the acceptable level of nitrate and nitrite contents of pastirma. In addition, potassium nitrate was degraded faster, and it was lower than sodium nitrate during the storage period.
In this study Halloumi cheese samples were produced from 1:1 mixtures of ewe's and cow's milk. Cheese samples were divided into two groups. Samples of the first group were dry salted and then vacuum packed. Next group samples were ripened in tin packs containing brine solution of 13% salt content. The changes in chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of the samples were investigated during the ripening period. It was found that the samples of the first group had higher dry matter and fat contents and acidity values but lower salt and ash contents than the samples of second group. It was also observed that salt and ash contents and acidity values increased in both groups during the ripening period while pH values decreased. In microbiological view, coliforms, total viable, yeast and mould counts were higher in the first group than in the second one. Coliforms decreased in both groups during the ripening period. On the other hand, total viable, yeast and mould counts decreased in second group. According to sensory evaluations, the first group samples were more preferred. The yield of cheese was determined as 15.40%.
In this study, Halloumi cheese samples were produced from preacidified cow's milk. Glucono-delta-lactone (gdl), lactic, citric and acetic acids were used in preacidification treatments. The cheese samples were vacuum packed and ripened at 7±1 °C for 90 days. The changes in some chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of the Halloumi cheese samples were investigated during the ripening period. Gdl and lactic acid were found more suitable than citric and acetic acids as an acidulant in Halloumi cheese production
The purpose of this study was to determine the
counts and to identify the species isolated in Urfa cheese traditionally manufactured from raw milk in Sanliurfa. In the research, 75 samples obtained from retail markets were examined.
was detected in 45.33% of the samples and counts varied between 10
. A total of 8 different species were identified, the most common of those was
(30% of the isolated strains), followed by
Citrobacter freundii, Yersinia enterocolitica
were present in small quantities (7.06, 5.88, 2.45 and 1.18% of the isolates, respectively). The results obtained from this study clearly indicate that measures should be taken to control and reduce the contamination and multiplication of pathogens such as
spp. in Urfa cheese.
In this study, NaX synthetic zeolite was modified by following the conventional cation exchange method at 70°C. 82, 81, 79
and 48% of sodium were exchanged with Li+, K+, Ca2+ and Ce3+, respectively. Thermal analysis data obtained by TG/DSC was used to evaluate the dehydration behavior of the zeolites. The
strongest interaction with water and the highest dehydration enthalpy (ΔH) value were found for Li-exchanged form and compared with the other forms. The temperature required for complete dehydration
increased with decreasing cation size (cation size: K+>Ce3+>Ca2+>Na+>Li+). CO2 adsorption at 5 and 25°C was also studied and the virial model equation was used to analyze the experimental data to calculate
the Henry’s law constant, Ko and isosteric heat of adsorption at zero loading Qst. Ko values decreased with increasing temperature and the highest Qst was obtained for K rich zeolite. It was observed that both
dehydration and CO2 adsorption properties are related to cation introduced into zeolite structure.
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on the plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and whole blood reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations in experimentally-induced chronic aflatoxicosis in quails. For this purpose, a total of 80 quails up to 8 weeks old were divided into four equal groups. Group I served as control, Group II was given L-carnitine at the dose of 200 mg/litre in the drinking water for 60 days, Group III was given 60 µg total aflatoxin/kg diet for 60 days, and Group IV was given both 60 µg total aflatoxin/kg diet and 200 mg L-carnitine/litre in the drinking water for 60 days. Aflatoxin treatment caused a significant increase in plasma MDA and a significant decrease in blood GSH concentrations. On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in plasma MDA and a significant increase in whole blood GSH in the L-carnitine-supplemented group. The present study demonstrated that L-carnitine brought about the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by enhancing antioxidant capacity in quails with chronic aflatoxicosis.
Influence of physically adsorbed basic red 1 (BR1) dye on the physicochemical properties of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) and clay (bentonite) was compared using adsorption, FTIR, and TG/DTA methods. A larger adsorption of the dye was observed for bentonite (0.143 mmol/g) than for clinoptilolite (0.0614 mmol/g) per gram of an adsorbent. However, the adsorption values are the same per surface unit (1.8 μmol/m2). The result (per gram) is due to location of dye molecules in interlayer and interparticle space of bentonite with much larger specific surface area than that of clinoptilolite. The dye adsorption leads to a decrease in the specific surface area and the pore volume of both minerals. The adsorption changes also a character of active sites and thermal stability. A TG study shows that the dye adsorption on bentonite changes adsorbed water amounts, weight loss, and decomposition temperature. In the case of zeolite, the dye adsorption insignificantly influences the thermal stability. The dehydration energy distributions calculated from the Q-TG and Q-DTG data demonstrate a complex mechanism of water thermodesorption and the influence of adsorbed dye on this process.