People ’s bel efs, whether they fall w thin the teachings of the church or not, belong to the folk rel g on.The stud es of folk rel g on compr se all soc al classes, peasant culture and m ddle class as well as workers.Invest gat ons of folk rel g on do not only focus on the pre-ndustr al era, but also on religiously oriented beliefs and customs among people in the secularised modern society. In our days t s mportant to examne how the many mmgrants and the r churches adjust to completely new conditions, for example in the way of dressing and concerning food proh bitions. One field of research which is suited for international comparisons concerns the significance of religion n cultural meetings across borders of different kinds, and those conflicts and forms of co-operation that may arise. Rel g on and pol t cs do not have to be opposed, but may also be l nked to each other.What looks like religious antagonisms may n fact have a political motivation.The main nterest for the folklor st is the role rel g on plays for common people w th n d fferent group ngs and not just w th n the political or relig ous elite.
Authors:B. Husenov, S. Asaad, H. Muminjanov, L. Garkava-Gustavsson, A. Yorgancillar and E. Johansson
Wheat seed-borne diseases are among the major constraints reducing crop yield and the quality of seed and grain. In this study we aimed to evaluate the type and prevalence of fungal seed-borne diseases in Tajik wheat seed samples. Particular emphasis was given to common bunt resistance in advanced wheat breeding materials. Furthermore, we aimed to identify options for improving the seed quality. Seed samples collected from two different locations in Tajikistan were tested by conventional seed-health testing methods for presence of seed-borne diseases. Nineteen advanced wheat breeding lines and three varieties collected from the Tajik wheat breeding program were screened using an artificial inoculation test for their response to common bunt. Significant differences were found between the locations and genotypes concerning presence of common bunt and black point. Fourteen fungal species, where most of them are pathogenic for wheat, were identified in the seed samples. Tilletia laevis, T. tritici, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Stemphylium spp., and Drechslera spp. were the major pathogenic fungi observed in collected wheat samples. Common bunt was predominantly represented by T. laevis. No strong resistance was found in the studied Tajik wheat material, although a low percentage of infection was found in one line (SHARK/ F4105W2.1), while the material was evaluated for common bunt resistance. In managing seed-borne diseases, breeding of resistant varieties should be given a priority, while cultural practices such as preventing contamination and monitoring seed health status should also be considered, as a last resort the use of chemical seed treatments are advised.