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  • Author or Editor: A. Hassan x
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Thyroid hormones (THs) are crucial for growth and development and particularly brain development. The present study was carried out to investigate the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Oxidative stress index (OSI) in the brain of pups born to dams with methimazole (MMI) induced hypothyroidism. Also, to elucidate the effectiveness of selenium (Se) in ameliorating the brain damaging effects induced by maternal hypothyroidism. Our results reveled that plasma free T3 (FT3), free T4 (FT4), growth hormone (GH) were significantly decreased while plasma thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was significantly increased in the pups. BDNF level significantly decreased while OSI significantly increased in both the hippocampus and cerebellum in pups born to hypothyroid dams. Se supplementation significantly alleviated the levels of these parameters. The biochemical modifications were confirmed histologically with the abnormal development of the hippocampus and cerebellum and partial reversal of these effects with Se supplementation. We concluded that reduced hippocampal and cerebellar BDNF levels and increment of oxidative stress during early development may contribute to the adverse neurodevelopmental effects of hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Also, Se is an important neuroprotective element that may be used as a dietary supplement against brain damage induced by hypothyroidism.

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Three Egyptian monazite samples from the beach black sand at Abou Khashba near Rosetta, submitted by the laboratories of the nuclear materials authority of Egypt were analyzed for elemental contents, using Prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) as an effective analysis technique especially for rare earth elements. An integrated system for PGNAA, located at hot Lab. Center, has proven useful for the analytical purpose using 252Cf neutron source with neutron flux of 6.16E7 n/cm2 s, that system has been designed and calibrated for PGNAA. Sensitivity curves using different standard concentration values of artificial liquid standards samples at different concentrations ranging from 1,000 to 5,000 mg/L in case of Sm and Gd, while from 100 to 1,000 mg/L for Eu, have been constructed. The average concentration values for Gd, Sm and Eu in the samples under investigation was at 1.46E4 ± 0.21, 6.683E4 ± 0.14 and 440 ± 0.18 ppm, respectively. A comparative study of the obtained results and the results of ICP-Ms was given.

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A quick method for estimating Mishra's  generalized geometric series distribution is suggested. The variance of the estimator is obtained and using this method a study on goodness of fit is done.

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Combined TG/DTA techniques have been used to study the thermal decomposition of R3PAuCN (where Ris ethyl, cyclohexyl, o-tolyl, m-tolyl, p-tolyl, allyl, cyanoethyl,1-naphthyl and phenyl) complexes. It was observed that all of these complexes underwant decomposition cum redox reactions in the range of 200–600oC with evolution of both transligands, which are phosphine and cyanide, leaving metallic gold as a residue. The thermal decomposition of o-Tol3PAuCN has revealed that this is a stepwise process. In the first step decomposition takes place with evolution of phosphine and generation of AuCN, which in second step undergoes a redox reaction to produce metallic gold. The DTA curves have also confirmed these results.

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Multielement neutron activation analysis has been applied to the determination of macro, micro and trace amounts of Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc and V in molasses of Kom Ombo, Edfu, Armant, Naga Hammady and Abu Korkass cane sugar factories. The threshold element concentrations are acceptable and below the safety. Differences in element concentrations may be related to different botanic textures and structures, different compositions of sugar cane plants, corrosion of containers or changes in soil as a result of geochemical differentiation. The method is sensitive down to 0.038 ppm of V. The relative errors due to counting statistics are in the range of 0.2–11%.

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The thermal decomposition of -irradiated and unirradiated complexes of mandel-hydroxamic acid (HMA), Co(HMA)2.1/2H2O, Mn(HMA)2.2H2O, Ba(HMA)2.2H2O and Cd(HMA)2.2H2O have been studied thermogravimetrically (under isothermal conditions). The thermal dehydration of each complex occurred in one step, while the decomposition of dehydrated complexes occurred in two steps. The kinetic parameters for dehydration were computed by different models. The thermal dehydration is regulated by random nucleation A3 for Co-, Mn-, and Cd-complexes and by phase-boundary (R3) for Ba-complex. The effect of -irradiation on the kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition is discussed. Radiation did not modify the mechanism of the reaction but accelarated the dehydration steps in the case of Mn- and Co-complexes.

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Four different samples of NdX, NdY, NdNH4X and NdNH4Y-zeolites were prepared by ionexchange methods. DTA and XRD analyses have been carried out for the samples. The thermally activated zeolites were irradiated by 1.5 and 10.0 Mrad -rays. The catalytic activities of these samples were tested in dehydration of isopropanol. The results of DTA indicated that all samples showed endothermic peaks at about 215 °C related to the release of physically adsorbed water and exothermic peaks at 850–950 °C indicating the collapses of the zeolite. The X-ray analysis revealed that the exchange of sodium by neodymium or ammonium followed by neodymium ions did not change the crystal structure but some decrease in the crystallinity was observed. The catalytic activities of these zeolites were measured in dehydration of isopropanol as a function of temperature. It was found that the activity of the prepared Nd-zeolites depends on the crystallinity of zeolites and on the condensation products formed on catalyst surface. However, the irradiated samples exhibited higher catalytic activities in isopropanol conversion than the unirradiated ones. The observed higher activity for irradiated samples was attributed to the increase of the number of acidic centers responsible for dehydration of alcohols. These centers were formed as a result of the formation of tricoordinate aluminium atoms in -irradiated zeolites.

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A well performance Electrolytic Controlled Etching (ECE) unit has been designed and constructed in our laboratory. Low electric field strength of few volts and a 2 kHz wave signals has been applied across the electrodes that confined the 9 and 12 μm thick PET foils in the ECE unit. PET foils were exposed to fission fragments (FFS) using 252Cf source. The dependence of different measurable parameters such as FFS fluence (Φ), applied voltage (V), etching temperature (T) and etching concentration (C) on both track etch rate (V T) and breakthrough time (T B) have extensively been studied using the FFS-irradiated PET foils. Various empirical relationships connecting the results of the present work have been extracted. Moreover, the constructed ECE technique has proven to be an encouraged time saving method in the development of trusting measurements comparing with others that might involve expensive sophisticated tools.

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Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that is reported as a major cause of nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the biofilm formation by A. baumannii clinical and soil isolates, to display their susceptibility to 11 antibiotics and to study a possible relationship between formation of biofilm and multidrug resistance. During 8 months period, from June 2016 to January 2017, a total of 52 clinical and 22 soil isolates of A. baumannii were collected and identified through conventional phenotypic, chromo agar, biochemical tests, API 20E system, and confirmed genotypically by PCR for bla OXA-51-like gene. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was determined by standard disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. The biofilm formation was studied using Congo red agar, test tube, and microtiter plate methods. The clinical isolates were 100% resistance to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, piperacillin, 96.15% to gentamicin, 96.15% to imipenem, 92.31% to meropenem, and 78.85% to amikacin. The soil A. baumannii isolates were 100% sensitive to imipenem, meropenem, and gentamicin, and 90.1% to ciprofloxacin. All A. baumannii isolates (clinical and soil) were susceptible to polymyxin B. The percentage of biofilm formation in Congo red agar, test tube, and microtiter plate assays was 10.81%, 63.51%, and 86.48%, respectively. More robust biofilm former population was mainly among non-MDR isolates. Isolates with a higher level of resistance tended to form weaker biofilms. The soil isolates exhibited less resistance to antibiotics than clinical isolates. However, the soil isolates produce stronger biofilms than clinical isolates.

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Through the use of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), zinc concentration was determined in kernels resulted on plants of six drought-resistant rice mutant lines fertilized with zinc sulphate. It was found that zinc fertilization increased zinc residues in the kernels with varying concentrations depending on the line, each line reacted and responded to zinc independently. Zinc content in the kernels ranged from 5.63 to 91.4 ppm in the unfertilized control lines. This range was enlarged due to zinc fertilization of the plants to be from 93.51 to 554.53 ppm. It was also noticed that zinc fertilization increased seed heaviness in varying degrees depending on the line itself. This increase may be due to the increase in kernel thickness rather than in kernel width or length.

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