Authors:S. Krishnan, J. Mernagh, A. Hitchman, K. McNeill, and J. Harrison
A procedure has been developed to measure fluoride concentration in bone biopsies by neutron activation analysis /NAA/. The NAA procedure is non-destructive so that the bone biopsies can be used subsequently for histological evaluation. The fluoride content is expressed as F/Ca ratio in the bone samples. The fluoride and calcium are measured using the reactions:19F/n, /20F /t=11.2 s/ and48Ca/n,/49Ca/t=8.8 m/, respectively. The F/Ca ratio normalizes the fluoride to bone mineral avoiding the use of bone weight which is unreliable with fresh biopsy samples. This ratio also corrects for variations in neutron flux and gamma counting efficiencies. Results by this procedure were compared to biochemical determinations using an ion-selective electrode for fluoride and atomic absorption for calcium. The two methods gave results which agreed within ±5% which is the precision of the NNA procedure. The NAA method provides a simple and non-destructive procedure for fluoride measurement in bone biopsies for clinical studies. The method is now routinely used in our clinical studies for the fluoride measurements on biopsies from osteoporotic patients treated with fluoride therapy for nearly four years.
Authors:S. Krishnan, M. Bayley, A. Hitchman, S. Lin, K. McNeill, and J. Harrison
This work describes an in vivo neutron activation analysis facility for small samples, such as rats or human hand, using two 100 g252Cf neutron sources. The irradiation area is a cylindrical space, of 12 cm diameter and about 15 cm length, with fairly uniform neutron flux distribution. Experimental data on the reproducibility, effects of volume and other conditions for in vivo measurements are given. Comparative atomic absorption data on calcium measurements on rats are reported. The facility is now used for animal experiments as well as human hand irradiations in clinical investigations involving calcium metabolism and bone diseases.
Authors:S. Krishnan, J. Harrison, R. Jervis, A. Hitchman, R. Dowlati, S. Lui, and B. Krishnan
Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry was found to be a sensitive (2·10–12 g detection limit), accurate but destructive method for cadmium assay in bone biopsy samples (about 30 mg dry weight). The inductively coupled plasma emission technique was poorer in sensitivity (1.2·10–9 g) and is also a destructive method. Activation Analysis is still less sensitive (2·10–8 g detection limit) but a nondestructive one. Cadmium was found to accumulate in bone of rats fed, for 5 weeks, 0, 50, and 100 mg Cd/l in drinking water and the bone concentrations were 0.16, 1.09, and 2.6 mg Cd/kg bone (dry wt). Histological examination of the bones showed that cadmium induced increased osteoid surface in the bone with no evidence of accompanying kidney damage. This suggests a primary effect of cadmium on bone rather than secondary effect due to kidney damage.